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Food Biochemistry and Food Processing PDF

761 Pages·2008·8.39 MB·English
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FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page iii Food Biochemistry and Food Processing Editor Y. H. Hui Associate Editors Wai-Kit Nip Leo M.L. Nollet Gopinadhan Paliyath Benjamin K. Simpson FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page i Food Biochemistry and Food Processing FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page iv ©2006 Blackwell Publishing Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations All rights reserved that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payments has been arranged. The Blackwell Publishing Professional fee codes for users of the Transactional Reporting 2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014, USA Service are ISBN-13: 978-0-8138-0378-4; ISBN-10: 0-8138-0378-0/2006 $.10. Orders: 1-800-862-6657 Office: 1-515-292-0140 First edition, 2006 Fax: 1-515-292-3348 Web site: www.blackwellprofessional.com Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Blackwell Publishing Ltd Food biochemistry and food processing / editor, Y.H. 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK Hui ; associate editors, Wai-Kit Nip . . . [et al.].— Tel.: (cid:1)44 (0)1865 776868 1st ed. p. cm. Blackwell Publishing Asia Includes index. 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, ISBN-13: 978-0-8138-0378-4 (alk. paper) Australia ISBN-10: 0-8138-0378-0 (alk. paper) Tel.: (cid:1)61 (0)3 8359 1011 1. Food industry and trade—Research. I. Hui, Y. H. (Yiu H.) Authorization to photocopy items for internal or per- TP370.8.F66 2006 sonal use, or the internal or personal use of specific 664—dc22 clients, is granted by Blackwell Publishing, provided 2005016405 that the base fee of $.10 per copy is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood The last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 iv FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page v Contents Contributors vii Preface xiii Part I: Principles 1. Food Biochemistry—An Introduction 3 W. K. Nip 2. Analytical Techniques in Food Biochemistry 25 M. Marcone 3. Recent Advances in Food Biotechnology Research 35 S. Jube and D. Borthakur 4. Browning Reactions 71 M. Villamiel, M. D. del Castillo, and N. Corzo Part II: Water, Enzymology, Biotechnology, and Protein Cross-linking 5. Water Chemistry and Biochemistry 103 C. Chieh 6. Enzyme Classification and Nomenclature 135 H. Ako and W. K. Nip 7. Enzyme Activities 155 D. J. H. Shyu, J. T. C. Tzen, and C. L. Jeang 8. Enzyme Engineering and Technology 175 D. Platis, G. A. Kotzia, I. A. Axarli, and N. E. Labrou 9. Protein Cross-linking in Food 223 J. A. Gerrard 10. Chymosin in Cheese Making 241 V. V. Mistry 11. Starch Synthesis in the Potato Tuber 253 P. Geigenberger and A. R. Fernie 12. Pectic Enzymes in Tomatoes 271 M. S. Kalamaki, N. G. Stoforos, and P. S. Taoukis Part III: Muscle Foods 13. Biochemistry of Raw Meat and Poultry 293 F. Toldrá and M. Reig v FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page vi vi Contents 14. Biochemistry of Processing Meat and Poultry 315 F. Toldrá 15. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Color in Muscle Foods 337 J. A. Pérez-Alvarez and J. Fernández-López 16. Biochemistry of Seafood Processing 351 Y. H. Hui, N. Cross, H. G. Kristinsson, M. H. Lim, W. K. Nip, L. F. Siow, and P. S. Stanfield 17. Seafood Enzymes 379 M. K. Nielsen and H. H. Nielsen 18. Proteomics: Methodology and Application in Fish Processing 401 O. T. Vilhelmsson, S. A. M. Martin, B. M. Poli, and D. F. Houlihan Part IV: Milk 19. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Milk Constituents 425 P. F. Fox and A. L. Kelly 20. Biochemistry of Milk Processing 453 A. L. Kelly and P. F. Fox Part V: Fruits, Vegetables, and Cereals 21. Biochemistry of Fruits 487 G. Paliyath and D. P. Murr 22. Biochemistry of Fruit Processing 515 M. Oke and G. Paliyath 23. Biochemistry of Vegetable Processing 537 M. Oke and G. Paliyath 24. Nonenzymatic Browning of Cookies, Crackers, and Breakfast Cereals 555 M. Villamiel 25. Rye Constituents and Their Impact on Rye Processing 567 T. Verwimp, C. M. Courtin, and J. A. Delcour Part VI: Fermented Foods 26. Dairy Products 595 T. D. Boylston 27. Bakery and Cereal Products 615 J. A. Narvhus and T. Sørhaug 28. Biochemistry of Fermented Meat 641 F. Toldrá 29. Biochemistry and Fermentation of Beer 659 R. Willaert Part VII: Food Safety 30. Microbial Safety of Food and Food Products 689 J. A. Odumeru 31. Emerging Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Methods of Detection 705 R. L. T. Churchill, H. Lee, and J. C. Hall Index 745 FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page vii Contributors Harry Ako(Chapter 6) University of Waterloo Department of Molecular Biosciences and Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada Bioengineering Phone (office): 519-888-4567 ext. 5816 University of Hawaii at Manoa Phone (home): 519-746-5133 Honolulu, HI 96822, USA Fax: 519-746-0435 Phone: 808-956-2012 Email: [email protected] Fax: 808-956-3542 Robin L.T. Churchill(Chapter 31) Email: [email protected] Department of Environmental Biology University of Guelph I. A. Axarli(Chapter 8) Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Enzyme Technology Laboratory Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Nieves Corzo(Chapter 4) Agricultural University of Athens Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales (CSIC) Iera Odos 75 c/Juan de la Cierva, 3 11855 Athens, Greece 28006 Madrid, Spain Phone: 34 91 562 2900 Dulal Borthakur(Chapter 3) Fax: 34 91 564 4853 Department of Molecular Biosciences and Email: ifi[email protected]fi.csic.es Bioengineering C. M. Courtin (Chapter 25) University of Hawaii at Manoa Department of Food and Microbial Technology Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA Faculty of Applied Bioscience and Engineering Phone: 808-956-6600 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Fax: 808-956-3542 Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 Email: [email protected] B-3001 Leuven, Belgium Terri D. Boylston(Chapter 26) Phone: (cid:1)32 16 321 634 Food Science and Human Nutrition Fax: (cid:1)32 16 321 997 Iowa State University Email: [email protected] 2547 Food Sciences Building N. Cross(Chapter 16) Ames, IA 50011, USA Cross Associates Phone: 515-294-0077 4461 North Keokuk Avenue Fax: 515-294-8181 Apt. 1 Email: [email protected] Chicago, IL 60630, USA Chung Chieh(Chapter 5) Phone: 773-545-9289 Department of Chemistry Email: [email protected] vii FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page viii viii Contributors Maria Dolores del Castillo(Chapter 4) Fax: (cid:1)64 03 364 2950 Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales (CSIC) Email: [email protected] c/Juan de la Cierva, 3 J. Christopher Hall(Chapter 31) 28006 Madrid, Spain Department of Environmental Biology Phone: 34 91 562 2900 University of Guelph Fax: 34 91 564 4853 Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Email: ifi[email protected]fi.csic.es Phone: 519-824-4120 ext. 52740 J. A. Delcour(Chapter 25) Fax: 519-837-0442 Department of Food and Microbial Technology Email: [email protected] Faculty of Applied Bioscience and Engineering Dominic F. Houlihan(Chapter 18) Katholieke Universiteit Leuven School of Biological Sciences Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK B-3001 Leuven, Belgium Y. H. Hui(Editor, Chapter 16) Phone: (cid:1)32 16 321 634 Science Technology System Fax: (cid:1)32 16 321 997 P.O. Box 1374 Email: [email protected] West Sacramento, CA 95691, USA Juana Fernández-López(Chapter 15) Phone: 916-372-2655 Departamento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria Fax: 916-372-2690 Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela Email: [email protected] Universidad Miguel Hernández Chii-Ling Jeang(Chapter 7) Camino a Beniel s/n 03313 Desamparados Department of Food Science Orihuela (Alicante), Spain National Chung Hsing University Phone: (cid:1)34 6 674 9656 Taichung, Taiwan 40227, Republic of China Fax: (cid:1)34 6 674 9609/674 9619 Phone: 886 4 228 62797 Email: [email protected] or Fax: 886 4 228 76211 [email protected] Email: [email protected] Alisdair R. Fernie(Chapter 11) Sandro Jube(Chapter 3) Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology Department of Molecular Biosciences and Am Mühlenberg 1 Bioengineering 14476 Golm, Germany University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, HI 96822, USA Patrick F. Fox(Chapter 19, 20) Phone: 808-956-8210 Food Science and Technology Fax: 808-956-3542 University College Cork Email: [email protected] Cork, Ireland Mary S. Kalamaki(Chapter 12) Phone: 00 353 21 490 2362 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Fax: 00 353 21 427 0001 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Email: [email protected] 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece Peter Geigenberger(Chapter 11) Phone: (cid:1)30 2310 412238 Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology Fax: (cid:1)30 2310 412238 Am Mühlenberg 1 Email: [email protected] 14476 Golm, Germany Alan L. Kelly(Chapter 19, 20) Email: [email protected] Food Science and Technology Juliet A. Gerrard(Chapter 9) University of Cork School of Biological Sciences Cork, Ireland University of Canterbury, Phone: 00 353 21 490 3405 Christchurch, New Zealand Fax: 00 353 21 427 0001 Phone: (cid:1)64 03 364 2987 Email: [email protected] FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page ix Contributors ix G. A. Kotzia (Chapter 8) Samuel A. M. Martin(Chapter 18) Enzyme Technology Laboratory School of Biological Sciences Department of Agricultural Biotechnology University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK Agricultural University of Athens Vikram V. Mistry(Chapter 10) Iera Odos 75 Dairy Science Department 11855 Athens, Greece South Dakota State University H. G. Kristinsson(Chapter 16) Brookings SD 57007, USA University of Florida Phone: 605-688-5731 Laboratory of Aquatic Food Biomolecular Research Fax: 605-688-6276 Aquatic Food Products Program Email: [email protected] Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Dennis P. Murr(Chapter 21) Gainesville FL 32611, USA Department of Plant Agriculture Phone: 352-392-1991 ext. 500 University of Guelph Fax: 352-392-9467 Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Email: [email protected]fl.edu Phone: 519-824-4120 ext. 53578 Email: [email protected] Michael Krogsgaard Nielsen(Chapter 17) Food Biotechnology and Engineering Group Judith A. Narvhus(Chapter 27) Food Biotechnology Dept of Chemistry, Biotechnology, BioCentrum-DTU and Food Science Technical University of Denmark Norwegian University of Life Sciences Phone: 45 45 25 25 92 Box 5003 Email: [email protected] 1432 Aas, Norway Email: [email protected] N. E. Labrou(Chapter 8) Enzyme Technology Laboratory Henrik Hauch Nielsen(Chapter 17) Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Danish Institute for Fisheries Research Agricultural University of Athens Department of Seafood Research Iera Odos 75 Søltofts Plads 11855 Athens, Greece Technical University of Denmark, Bldg. 221 Phone and Fax: (cid:1)30 210 529 4308 DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Email: [email protected] Phone: (cid:1)45 45 25 25 93 Fax: (cid:1)45 45 88 47 74 Hung Lee(Chapter 31) Email: [email protected] Department of Environmental Biology Michael Krogsgaard Nielsen(Chapter 17) University of Guelph Food Biotechnology and Engineering Group Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Food Biotechnology M. H. Lim(Chapter 16) BioCentrum-DTU Department of Food Science Technical University of Denmark, Bldg. 221 University of Otago DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark Dunedin, New Zealand Phone: (cid:1)45 45 25 25 92 Phone: 64 3 479 7953 Fax: (cid:1)45 45 88 47 74 Fax: 64 3 479 7567 Email: [email protected] [email protected] Wai-kit Nip(Associate Editor, Chapters 1, 6, 16) Massimo Marcone(Chapter 2) Department of Molecular Biosciences and Department of Food Science Bioengineering University of Guelph University of Hawaii at Manoa Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Honolulu, HI 96822, USA Phone: 519-824-4120, ext. 58334 Phone: 808-956-3852 Fax: 519-824-6631 Fax: 808-955-6942 Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] FM_Hui_277065 11/1/05 11:12 AM Page x x Contributors Leo M. L. Nollet(Associate Editor) Milagro Reig(Chapter 13) Hogeschool Gent Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología Department of Engineering Sciences de Alimentos (CSIC) Schoonmeersstraat 52 P.O. Box 73 B9000 Gent, Belgium 46100 Burjassot (Valencia), Spain Phone: 00 329 242 4242 Douglas J.H. Shyu(Chapter 7) Fax: 00 329 243 8777 Graduate Institute of Biotechnology Email: [email protected] National Chung Hsing University Joseph A. Odumeru(Chapter 30) Taichung, Taiwan 40227, Republic of China Laboratory Services Division Phone: 886 4 228 840328 University of Guelph Fax: 886 4 228 53527 95 Stone Road West Email: [email protected] Guelph, Ontario N1H 8J7, Canada Benjamin K. Simpson(Associate Editor) Phone: 519-767-6243 Department of Food Science Fax Number: 519-767-6240 McGill University, MacDonald Campus Email: [email protected] 21111 Lakeshore Road Moustapha Oke(Chapters 22, 23) St. Anne Bellevue PQ H9X3V9, Canada Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food Phone: 514-398-7737 1 Stone Road West, 2nd Floor SW Fax: 514-398-7977 Guelph, Ontario N1G 4Y2, Canada Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] L. F. Siow(Chapter 16) Gopinadhan Paliyath(Associate Editor, Chapters Department of Food Science 21, 22, 23) University of Otago Department of Plant Agriculture Dunedin, New Zealand University of Guelph Phone: 64 3 479 7953 Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Fax: 64 3 479 7567 Phone: 519-824-4120, ext. 54856 Email: [email protected] Terje Sørhaug(Chapter 27) Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology, José Angel Pérez-Alvarez(Chapter 15) and Food Science Departamento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria Norwegian University of Life Sciences Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela Box 5003 Universidad Miguel Hernández 1432 Aas, Norway Camino a Beniel s/n 03313 Desamparados Email: [email protected] Orihuela (Alicante), Spain Phone: (cid:1)34 06 674 9656 P. S. Stanfield(Chapter 16) Fax: (cid:1)34 06 674 9609/674 9619 Dietetic Resources Email: [email protected] 794 Bolton St. Twin Falls, ID 83301, USA D. Platis Phone: 208-733-8662 Laboratory of Enzyme Technology Email: PStanfl[email protected] Department of Agricultural Biotechnology Agricultural University of Athens Nikolaos G. Stoforos(Chapter 12) Iera Odos 75 Department of Chemical Engineering 11855 Athens, Greece Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Bianca M. Poli (Chapter 18) 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece Department of Animal Production Phone: (cid:1)30 2310 996450 University of Florence Fax: (cid:1)30 2310 996259 Florence, Italy Email: [email protected]

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