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Job No. XXXX Pantone 202 C 92+ pages; Perfect Bind with SPINE COPY = 14 pts A W 5 T N DDRESS SERVICE REQ ashington, D.C. 20001 00 Fifth Street, N.W. RANSPORTATION RESEAR CHRP SYNTHE NCHRP NATIONAL U C S ESTED H BOA IS 4 CHOIGOHPWEARYATIVE R D 1 7 RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 417 G e o m e t r i Geometric Design Practices for c D e s Resurfacing, Restoration, and i g n P Rehabilitation r a c t i c e s f o r R e s u r f a c i n g , R e s t o r a t i o n , a n d R e h a b i l i t a t A Synthesis of Highway Practice i o n T R B NEED SPINE WIDTH TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* Abbreviations used without definition in TRB Publications: AAAE American Association of Airport Executives OFFICERS AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials Chair:Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Vice Chair:Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America Executive Director:Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act MEMBERS APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers J. BARRY BARKER,Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers DEBORAH H. BUTLER,Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials WILLIAM A.V. CLARK,Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles ATA Air Transport Association EUGENE A. CONTI, JR., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh ATA American Trucking Associations JAMES M. CRITES, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX CTAA Community Transportation Association of America PAULA J. HAMMOND, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley DHS Department of Homeland Security SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City DOE Department of Energy MICHAEL R. MORRIS, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington EPA Environmental Protection Agency TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA FAA Federal Aviation Administration STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA FHWA Federal Highway Administration HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration BEVERLY A. SCOTT,General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers LAWRENCE A. SELZER, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 KUMARES C. SINHA, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials KIRK T. STEUDLE, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program C. MICHAEL WALTON,Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board EX OFFICIO MEMBERS SAE Society of Automotive Engineers PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT SAFETY-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT A Legacy for Users (2005) REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) ANNE S. FERRO,Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT TRB Transportation Research Board JOHN T. GRAY,Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC TSA Transportation Security Administration JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC TARA O’TOOLE, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC ROBERT J. PAPP (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard),Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO,Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army),Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC BARRY R. WALLERSTEIN,Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA *Membership as of March 2011. NEED SPINE WIDTH NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 417 Geometric Design Practices for Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation A Synthesis of Highway Practice conSultant HUGH W. McGEE, SR. Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. Vienna, Virginia SubScriber categorieS Highways • Design Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 417 Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administra- Project 20-05 (Topic 41-01) tors and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and ISSN 0547-5570 can best be studied by highway departments individually or in coop- ISBN 978-0-309-14333-2 eration with their state universities and others. However, the accelerat- Library of Congress Control No. 2011921585 ing growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are © 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials COPYRIGHT INFORMATION initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their manuscripts employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of used herein. the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to repro- Transportation. duce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit pur- The Transportation Research Board of the National Research Coun- poses. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the cil was requested by the Association to administer the research pro- material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMSCA, gram because of the Board’s recognized objectivity and understanding FTA, or Transit development Corporation endorsement of a particular of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any development or possesses avenues of communication and cooperation with federal, reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its from CRP. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objec- tivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research NOTICE directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Co-operative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transpor- and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research tation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Board’s judgment that the program concerned is of national impor- Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill tance and appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies of the National Research Council. are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines The needs for highway research are many, and the National Coop- appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or erative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the techni- to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to cal committee, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway Research Board, the National Research Council, the American Asso- research programs. ciation of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the tech- nical committee according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW NOTE: The Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- Washington, DC 20001 emies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Adminis- tration, the American Association of State Highway and Transporta- tion Officials, and the individual states participating in the National and can be ordered through the Internet at: Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. Printed in the United States of America TheNationalAcademyofSciencesisaprivate,nonprofit,self-perpetuatingsocietyofdistinguishedschol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863,theAcademyhasamandatethatrequiresittoadvisethefederalgovernmentonscientificandtechni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. TheNationalAcademyofEngineeringwasestablishedin1964,underthecharteroftheNationalAcad- emy of Sciences, as aparallelorganizationofoutstandingengineers.Itisautonomousinitsadministration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advisingthefederalgovernment.TheNationalAcademyofEngineeringalsosponsorsengineeringprograms aimedatmeetingnationalneeds,encourageseducationandresearch,andrecognizesthesuperiorachieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. VestispresidentoftheNationalAcademyofEngineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the NationalAcademy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining tothehealthofthepublic.TheInstituteactsundertheresponsibilitygiventotheNationalAcademyof Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the InstituteofMedicine. The National Research Council was organizedbytheNationalAcademyofSciencesin1916toassociate thebroadcommunityofscienceandtechnologywiththeAcademy’spurposesoffurtheringknowledgeand advisingthefederalgovernment.FunctioninginaccordancewithgeneralpoliciesdeterminedbytheAcad- emy,theCouncilhasbecometheprincipaloperatingagencyofboththeNationalAcademyofSciences and the NationalAcademy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientificandengineeringcommunities.TheCouncilisadministeredjointlybybothAcademiesandthe InstituteofMedicine.Dr.RalphJ.CiceroneandDr.CharlesM.Vestarechairandvicechair,respectively, ofthe National Research Council. TheTransportationResearchBoardisoneofsixmajordivisionsoftheNationalResearchCouncil.The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progressthroughresearchandinformationexchange,conductedwithinasettingthatisobjective,interdisci- plinary,andmultimodal.TheBoard’svariedactivitiesannuallyengageabout7,000engineers,scientists,and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments,federalagenciesincludingthecomponentadministrationsoftheU.S.DepartmentofTransporta- tion,andotherorganizationsandindividualsinterestedinthedevelopmentoftransportation.www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-5 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative CHAIR Research Programs CATHERINE NELSON, CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Oregon DOT Research Programs NANDA SRINIVASAN, Senior Program Officer MEMBERS EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications KATHLEEN S. AMES, Michael Baker Jr., Inc. STUART D. ANDERSON, SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF Texas A&M University STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and CYNTHIA J. BURBANK, Special Programs PB Americas, Inc. JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and LISA FREESE, Synthesis Studies Scott County (MN) Public Works Division JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer MALCOLM T. KERLEY, GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer Virginia DOT DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer RICHARD D. LAND, DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor California DOT CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant JAMES W. MARCH, DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant Columbia, MD DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University ANANTH PRASAD, TOPIC PANEL Secretary, Florida DOT SIMONE ARDOIN, Louisiana Department of Transportation ROBERT L. SACK, and Development New York State DOT B. RAY DERR, Transportation Research Board FRANCINE SHAW-WHITSON, STEPHEN F. MAHER, Transportation Research Board Federal Highway Administration JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University MARY LYNN TISCHER, REBECCA MOWRY, California Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration LARRY J. SHANNON, MS Consultants, Inc. Columbus, OH LARRY VELASQUEZ, PHIL TENHULZEN, Nebraska Department of Roads QUALCON, Inc. BARTON THRASHER, Virginia Department of Transportation RICHARD D. WILDER, New York State Department of FHWA LIAISON Transportation JACK JERNIGAN CHRISTINE A. BLACK, Federal Highway Administration, Lakewood, CO TRB LIAISON KEITH J. HARRISON, Federal Highway Administration, STEPHEN F. MAHER San Francisco, CA Cover figure: Paving operations in New York State (courtesy: New York State Department of Transportation). FOREWORD Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway commu- nity, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials—through the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program—authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Proj- ect 20–5, “Synthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,” searches out and syn- thesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE Each state transportation agency has its own design guidance and standards for nonfree- way resurfacing, restoration, and rehabilitation (3R) projects. These include enhancements By Jon M. Williams to improve highway safety. The purpose of this study was to gather and synthesize current Program Director state practices related to 3R projects. Transportation Information was acquired through a literature review and a survey of all state transpor- Research Board tation agencies. Documents that provide state 3R policies were obtained either from state websites or directly from the states. Hugh W. McGee, Sr., of Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc., Vienna, Virginia, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 3 Objective of Synthesis, 3 Contents of Synthesis, 3 4 CHAPTER TWO HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR RESURFACING, RESTORATION, AND REHABILITATION PROJECTS Evolution of the Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation Program, 4 Current Design Policies and Guidelines Applicable to Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation Projects, 6 9 CHAPTER THREE RESULTS OF STATE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Background, 9 State Practices and Procedures, 9 20 CHAPTER FOUR GEOMETRIC DESIGN CRITERIA FOLLOWED BY STATES Thirteen Controlling Design Criteria, 20 Other Design Criteria, 29 31 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 33 REFERENCES 34 APPENDIX A FHWA TECHNICAL ADVISORY TA 5040.28 44 APPENDIX B SUMMARY OF TRB SPECIAL REPORT 214 47 APPENDIX C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 55 APPENDIX D SURVEY RESPONSES BY STATE TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES 87 APPENDIX E NEW YORK STATE RESURFACING SAFETY ASSESSMENT FORM AND CHECKLIST 93 APPENDIX F HIGHWAY SAFETY MANUAL AND CRASH REDUCTION FACTORS 97 APPENDIX G SUMMARY OF GOOD PRACTICES: INCORPORATING SAFETY INTO RESURFACING AND RESTORATION PROJECTS

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