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The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History PDF

728 Pages·2006·15.09 MB·English
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The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History Preface The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History is a reference book, with entries arranged in A–Z format. To go directly to a particular entry, click on the link in the table of contents. There are also links between entries – click on any underlined word to jump to the related entry. © Copyright Research Machines plc 2006. All rights reserved. Helicon Publishing is a division of Research Machines plc. Helicon Publishing New Mill House 183 Milton Park Abingdon Oxon OX14 4SE e-mail: [email protected] Web site: www.helicon.co.uk Cover photograph © Billie Love. Table of contents A abdication crisis Abercromby, Ralph Aberdare, Henry Austin Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdeen (codename) Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen Abhorrer Abinger, James Scarlett abjuration, oath of abjuration of the realm abolitionism Abraham-man Achurch, Janet Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg Adams, Truda Addington, Henry, 1st Viscount Sidmouth Addled Parliament Adelaide (Queen consort) Admiralty, Board of the Adrian IV Afghan Wars agrarian revolution agricultural revolution agriculture, 19th-century British agriculture, medieval Airy, Anna Albany, Alexander Stewart, 3rd Duke of Albany, John Stewart, 4th Duke of Albany, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albert, Prince Consort Albion Alcock, John William Alexander Alexander I (of Scotland) Alexander II (of Scotland) Alexander III (of Scotland) Alexander of Hillsborough, Albert Victor Alexander Alexander 'the Magnificent' Alexandra (Queen consort) Alfred the Great Aliens Act Allen, William Alliance, the allodium All the Talents, Ministry of Alnwick Castle Amery, Leo(pold Charles Maurice Stennett) Amherst, William Pitt Amiens, peace of ancient demesne Ancient Order of Hibernians Anderson shelter André, John angel (coin) Angell, (Ralph) Norman Angle Anglesey, Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey Anglo-Irish Agreement Anglo–Irish relations Anglo-Irish Treaty Anglo-Irish War Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Anne Anne of Bohemia Anne of Cleves Anne of Denmark Annesley, James Anning, Mary Anson, George Anti-Corn Law League Antrim, Randal Macdonnell Anwykyll, John Apostles Aquinas, St Thomas Aram, Eugene Arbroath, Declaration of Arcadia conference Arch, Joseph Arctic convoys Argyll Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll Argyll, Archibald Campbell Argyll, Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl and 2nd Marquess of Argyll Argyll, John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll Argyll, George John Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll Argyll, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll Arkwright, Richard Arlington, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington Arminianism Armitage, Edward Armstrong, Henry Edward Arnold, Joseph Arran, James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran Arran, James Stewart, Earl of Arran Arras, Battle of (World War II) array, commission of Arthur Arthur, Duke of Brittany Arthur, Prince of Wales Articles, Lords of Arundel, Thomas Howard Ascham, Roger Ashanti Wars Ashby, Margery Irene Ashingdon, Battle of Ashley, Jack Ashmole, Elias Ashmolean Museum Aske, Robert Askew, Anne Askey, Arthur Aspinall, John Audley Frederick Asquith, Herbert Henry Association, the Astley, Jacob Astley, Philip Astor Astor, Nancy Astor, Waldorf, 2nd Viscount Astor of Cliveden atheling Athelney, Isle of Athelstan Athlone, Alexander (Augustus Frederick William Alfred George) Atkins, Anna Atlantic triangle Atrebates ATS attainder, bill of Atterbury, Francis Attlee, Clement (Richard) Attwood, Thomas (politician) Auckland, George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland Audley, Thomas Aughrim, Battle of Augmentation, Court of Auld Alliance Aungerville, Richard auxiliary territorial service Avebury Avebury, John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury Awdry, W(ilbert) V(ere) axe factories Aylmer, Felix Edward Aymer de Valence (bishop) Aymer de Valence (nobleman) Ayres, John Ayscough, William Ayscue, George B Babington, Anthony Back, George Back to Basics Backwell, Edward Bacon, Francis (politician) Bacon, Nicholas Baddeley, Sophia Baedeker raids Bagehot, Walter Bagimond's Roll Bagot, Charles Baillie, Robert Baillie, Robert, of Jerviswood Baird, David Baker, Henry Bakewell, Robert Baldwin, Stanley Balfour, James, of Pittendreich Balfour Declaration Baliol, John de Ball, Albert Ball, Alexander John ballot act Balmerino, James Elphinstone, 1st Baron Balnaves, Henry, of Halhill Bannockburn, Battle of barbarian conspiracy Barber, Anthony Perrinott Lysberg Barebones Parliament Barham, Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barnes, (Alice) Josephine (Mary Taylor) Barnes, George Nicoll Barnet, Battle of baronage Barons' War (1264–67) Barons' Wars Barrington, Jonah Bart, Lionel Barton, Elizabeth bastide Battenberg, (Mountbatten) Prince Louis Alexander Beachy Head, Battle of Beaconsfield (title) beadle Beale, Mary Beaton, David Beaufort, Henry Beaufort, Margaret Beaumaris Beaumont, Agnes Beaverbrook, (William) Max(well) Aitken Becket, St Thomas à Bede bedel Bee, St Bek, Antony Bekynton, Thomas Belknap, Robert Bell, Alexander Graham Bell, Andrew Beloff, Max, Baron Beloff Benbow, John benefit of clergy Bennett, Jill Bentinck, Lord (William) George (Frederick Cavendish) Bentinck, Lord William Henry Cavendish Beresford, Charles William de la Poer Berkeley, William Bermingham Berry, Edward Berwick, James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick Berwick, treaties of Bessemer, Henry Bevan, Aneurin (Nye) Beveridge, William Henry Beveridge Report, the Bevin, Ernest Bianconi, Charles (Carlo) Biggs, Ronald Billington-Greig, Teresa Bill of Rights (English) Birkbeck, George Birkenhead, F(rederick) E(dwin) Smith Birkett, (William) Norman Bishops' Wars Black, Clementina Maria Black and Tans Blackburn, Helen Black Prince Blackwood, Henry Blair, Tony Blake, George (spy) Blake, Robert blanketeers Blenheim, Battle of Bligh, William Blitz, the Blood, Thomas Bloody Assizes Bloody Sunday Blount, Charles blue books Blunt, Anthony Frederick Boadicea Bodichon, Barbara Bodley, Thomas Boleyn, Anne Bolingbroke Bolingbroke, Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke Bonar Law Bondfield, Margaret Grace Bonham-Carter, (Helen) Violet Boniface of Savoy Bonnie Prince Charlie Booth, Catherine Booth, Charles Booth, William Boothby, Robert John Graham Borlase, William Boscawen, Edward Bosworth, Battle of Bothwell, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell Boucicault, Nina Boudicca Bounty, Mutiny on the Bourchier, Thomas Bow Street Runners Boycott, Charles Cunningham Boyle, Richard Boyle, Roger Boyne, Battle of the Braddock, Elizabeth Margaret (Bessie) Bradlaugh, Charles Bradshaw, John Brady, Ian Brant, Joseph Breakspear, Nicholas Brendan, St Brent-Dyer, (Gladys) Elinor M(ay) Brett, Jeremy Bretwalda Brian Bóruma Bright, John Brighton Pavilion Brindley, James Britain Britain, ancient Britain, Battle of Britannia British East India Company British Empire British Empire (World War I) British Empire, Order of the British Museum broad church Broadway (codename) Brooke, James Brookeborough, Basil Stanlake Brooke Brougham, Henry Peter Brown, (James) Gordon Brown, George Alfred Brown, John (Scottish aide) Brown, William Browne, George, Count de Browne Bruce, Robert Bruce, Robert de Brummell, Beau (George Bryan) Bryce, James B-Specials Buckingham, George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham Buckingham, George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham Bull, Phil Bull, John (imaginary figure) Buller, Redvers Henry Burdett-Coutts, Angela Georgina, Baroness Burdett-Coutts Burgess, Guy Francis de Moncy Burgh, Hubert de Burghley, William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley Burke, Edmund Burke, John Bernard Burnham, Harry Lawson-Webster Levy-Lawson Burns, John Elliot Burton, Beryl Bute, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute Butler, Eleanor Butler, Elizabeth Southerden Butler, Josephine Elizabeth Butler, Richard Austen Butler, William Francis Butler of Saffron Walden, Richard Austen Butler, Baron Butler of Saffron Walden Butlers of Ormond Butt, Isaac Buxton, Thomas Fowell Byng, George Byng, John Byron, Annabella C Cabal, the Cade, Jack Cadwalader Cadwallon Caernarfon Caledonia Callaghan, (Leonard) James Calvert, George, 1st Baron Baltimore Camden, William Camelot Cameron, John Campbell, Colin Campbell, John, 1st Baron Campbell Campbell-Bannerman, Henry Campion, Edmund Canning, Charles John Canning, George Canning, Stratford Canterbury Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury Tales, The Canute Caractacus Caradon, Baron Cardigan, James Thomas Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardwell, Edward, 1st Viscount Cardwell Carey, James Caroline of Brunswick Carpenter, Alfred Francis Carpenter, Mary Carrington, Dora (de Houghton) Carson, Edward Henry Carteret, John, 1st Earl Granville Carteret, Sir George Cartwright, Edmund Casement, Roger David Cassivelaunus Castanheda, Fernão Lopes de Castle, Barbara Anne Castlemaine, Countess of Castlereagh, Robert Stewart Cat and Mouse Act Catesby, Robert Catherine of Aragón Catherine of Braganza Catherine of Valois Catholic Emancipation Cato Street Conspiracy Cattle Acts Catuvellauni cavalier Cavell, Edith (Louisa) Cavendish, Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish, Spencer Cavendish, William Cawley, William Cecil, Edgar Algernon Robert Cecil, Robert Cecil, William Central Treaty Organization ceorl Cerdic Chadwick, Edwin Chadwick, Helen Chain, Ernst Boris Chain Home chamberlain Chamberlain, (Arthur) Neville Chamberlain, (Joseph) Austen Chamberlain, Joseph Chandos Chandos, Oliver Lyttelton, 1st Viscount Chandos Charge of the Light Brigade charity schools Charles Charles I (of Great Britain and Ireland) Charles II (of Great Britain and Ireland) Charles Edward Stuart Charles Fort Charrington, Frederick Nicholas charter charters, town Chartism Chaucer, Geoffrey

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