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Textbook of Food Science and Technology PDF

2016·29.6 MB·English
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Textbook of FOOD SCIENCE AN D TECHNOLOGY VIJAYA KHADER Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2018 https://archive.org/details/textbookoffoodscOOOOkhad Textbook of Food Science and Technology Textbook of Food Science and Technology VIJAYA KHADER Director Centre of Advanced Studies in Foods and Nutrition Post-graduate and Research Centre, College of Home Science Acharya N.G. Ranga Agriculture University Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030, Andhra Pradesh Published by Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture Indian Council of Agricultural Research Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan-I, Pusa New Delhi Printed September 2001 First Reprint June 2013 Second Reprint May 2016 Project Director (DKMA) Dr Rameshwar Singh lncharge (English Editorial Unit) Dr Aruna T Kumar Chief Production Officer Dr V K Bharti Assistant Chief Technical Officer Kul Bhushan Gupta All Rights Reserved © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi ISBN : 978-81-7164-133-8 Price : ? 500 Published by Dr Rameshwar Singh, Project Director, Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan-I, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 and printed at M/s Chandu Press, D-97, Shakarpur, Delhi 110 092. Foreword The moment food is harvested, gathered and caught, its progressive deterioration starts. And to preserve or store food, food processing, an important science, needs to be given due impetus in the present scenario. The status of food-processing sector varies in different countries depending on the variety of factors, while the basic food is an essential inevitable input for life sustenance. The economic dimension of the food¬ processing industry is influenced by the extent of the processed foods find their way in the day-to-day menu of the family. The use of additives in foods is not new, but their excessive use in recent years has raised issues that place certain responsibility upon the food technologists and the government. The present-day market has a tremendous array of foods which were unheard of 10 or 15 years ago. But the quality and characteristics of many of the convenience foods compare very favourably with home-prepared foods. Street foods have also an enormous impact on the urban food supply, economically as well as socially and nutritionally. An excellent measure of technological advancement of a society is the extent to which the refrigration and frozen food processing, transportation, storage and merchandizing facilities are developed. According to one school of thought, Food Science and Food Technology is not treated as two separate subjects but as broad divisions of what, in truth, is a continuous spectrum. Undoubtedly, the relationship between the Food Science and Food Technology is subtle and complex. Food Science today brings together such specialists as physicists, mathematicians and rheologists to study extensibility and extrusion properties of bread dough; the microbiologists, nutritionists and toxicologists to investigate safety of a processed food; microwave engineer, packaging engineer, and statistician to define a quality controlled high speed unit process; and political scientists to decide the feasibility of a new source of food for narrowing gap between world food production and increasing population. Food Science and Technology will offer avenues for the integration of different kinds of knowledge base for the betterment of society. Besides, this will offers great challenges to researchers, teachers and writers of the texts. Considering long-felt need for a textbook on Food Science and Technology, the help of Dr (Mrs) Vijaya Khader, Director, Centre of Advanced FOREWORD Studies in Foods and Nutrition, Achaiya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, was sought. I congragulate Dr (Mrs) Vijaya Khader for writing ‘Textbook of Food Science and Technology’, covering very relevant and various aspects such as physico-chemical properties of foods, food enzymes, food additives, water activity, evaluation of food, foods of plant and animal origin, novel foods, baked products, packaging, food laws and quality control. It is hoped that this textbook will be of immense value to all who are concerned with food. In particular, it will provide wealth of information and excellent reference material to post-graduate students of Food and Nutrition and Food Science, Home Economists, catering and nutrition schools, colleges of education, technical colleges and universities and students of medicine and nursing. (Dr M. V. Rao) Former Vice-Chancellor Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Preface Food has been a basic part of our existence. Through the centuries we have acquired a wealth of information about the use of food as a part of our community, social, national and religious life. It has been used as an expression of love, friendship and social acceptance. The desire to write a Textbook of Food Science and Technology had inculcated in me while I was teaching Food Chemistry, Food Science and Proteinous Foods; as there was no good textbook available which combined at a fairly elementary level, a discussion of chemical nature of food with description of what happens to food when it is processed. I was fully aware that to cover knowledge so broad as is encompassed by the terms Food Science and Technology, even in elementary fashion, in a single spine is undoubtedly a difficult task. But the book was initiated with the hope that it will help to fill several needs. The scientific study of food is one of the man’s most important endeavours. And food processing and handling is the largest of all man’s industries as the complexity of foods, their vulnerability to spoilage, their role as a disease carrier, the different sources of foods, the availability, nutritional adequacy and the wholesomeness of foods are quite vaired. The literature on food science and technology is extensive in its detailed treatment of specific commodities, unit operations and control methods. However, an attempt has been made to provide as much knowledge as possible in a nutshell in the following 7 parts covering all food groups. It is very important for all those who deal with food to understand scientific basis of modern methods of food processing. The book deals successively with the main food commodities such as cereals, millets, legumes, nuts and oilseeds, meat, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, vegetables and fruits and the principal processes of food technology applied to each. The purpose of the work is to outline the way in which the knowledge of the chemical composition of different food commodities or of biological characteristics of certain types of micro-organisms can be applied to achieve results. The key methods for food processing and their principles, modes of action, and assets or limitations are presented in a comprehensive way in this publication. Special emphasis has been given to preservation techniques. PREFACE Food chemistry is reviewed to the degree required for understanding fundamental changes, and for techniques in handling and processing. The diagrams are in most cases used to elucidate principles rather than experimental findings. This publication will serve as a useful reference book to under-graduate and post-graduate students of Food and Nutrition and Food Science; to teachers of these disciplines; to Home economists and nutritionists. This will also be of interest to industrialists, researchers, professionals and all others in fields related to safety and wholesomeness of foods, and those concerned with how Food Science and Technology will be instrumental in human survival. Vijaya Khader

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