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Spanish: An Essential Grammar PDF

343 Pages·2004·2.49 MB·English
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ii 1111 2 3 4 Spanish 5 6 7 An Essential Grammar 8 9 1011 1 12111 Spanish: An Essential Grammar is a concise and user-friendly reference 3 guide to the most important aspects of Spanish. 4 It presents a fresh and accessible description of the language as it is spoken 5 both in Europe and Latin America. The book sets out the complexities of 6 Spanish in short, readable sections, and explanations are clear and free 7 from jargon. 8 9 The Grammar is the ideal reference source for the learner and user of 20111 Spanish. It is suitable for either independent study or for students in 1 schools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types. 2 Features include: 3 4 • Clear distinctions between the essential and basic aspects of Spanish 5 grammar and those that are more complex 6 • Full use of authentic examples 7 • Simple explanations of areas that customarily pose problems for 8 English speakers 9 • Detailed contents list and index for easy access to information 30111 1 Peter T. Bradley is Emeritus Professor of Latin American History and Ian 2 Mackenzie is Senior Lecturer in Spanish, both at Newcastle University. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 Routledge Essential Grammars 1111 2 Essential Grammars are available for the following languages: 3 4 Chinese 5 Danish 6 Dutch 7 English 8 Finnish 9 Greek 1011 Hungarian 1 Modern Hebrew 12111 Norwegian 3 Polish 4 Portuguese 5 Spanish 6 Swedish 7 Thai 8 Urdu 9 20111 Other titles of related interest published by Routledge: 1 2 Modern Spanish Grammar: A Practical Guide, Second Edition 3 By Juan Kattán-Ibarra and Christopher J. Pountain 4 5 Modern Spanish Grammar Workbook, Second Edition 6 By Juan Kattán-Ibarra and Irene Wilkie 7 8 Colloquial Spanish 9 By Untza Otaola Alday 30111 1 Colloquial Spanish 2 2 By Untza Otaola Alday 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 1111 2 3 4 Spanish 5 6 7 An Essential Grammar 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 Peter T. Bradley and 6 7 Ian Mackenzie 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 First published 2004 12111 by Routledge 3 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE 4 Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada 5 by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 6 7 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group 8 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2004. 9 © 2004 Peter T. Bradley and Ian Mackenzie 20111 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced 1 or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, 2 now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, 3 or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. 4 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 5 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library 6 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 7 Bradley, Peter T., 1943– 8 Spanish: an essential grammar/Peter T. Bradley and Ian Mackenzie. 9 p. cm. – (Routledge Essential grammars) Includes index. 30111 1. Spanish language–Grammar. I. Mackenzie, I.E., 1965– II. Title. 1 III. Series: Essential grammar. 2 PC4112.B63 2004 468.2′421–dc22 2003020645 3 4 ISBN 0-203-49729-5 Master e-book ISBN 5 6 7 ISBN 0-203-57133-9 (Adobe eReader Format) 8 ISBN 0–415–28642–5 (hbk) ISBN 0–415–28643–3 (pbk) 9 40 41111 1111 2 Contents 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 Preface xiii 3 Acknowledgement xv 4 Symbols xvi 5 6 Chapter 1 The alphabet, pronunciation, stress, 7 spelling and punctuation 1 8 1.1 The alphabet 1 9 1.2 Pronunciation 2 20111 1.3 Stress and written accents 6 1 1.4 Spelling – capital letters 9 2 1.5 Punctuation 11 3 4 Chapter 2 Nouns 13 5 6 2.1 Plural forms of nouns 13 7 2.2 Gender 18 8 2.3 Collective nouns and agreement 26 9 Chapter 3 Definite and indefinite articles 27 30111 1 3.1 Forms of the articles 27 2 3.2 The definite article 29 3 3.3 The indefinite article 36 4 3.4 The neuter article lo 40 5 6 Chapter 4 Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns 43 7 4.1 Demonstrative adjectives 43 8 4.2 Masculine and feminine demonstrative pronouns 45 9 4.3 Neuter demonstrative pronouns 46 40 41111 v Chapter 5 Possessive adjectives 47 1111 Contents 2 5.1 Possessive adjectives before the noun 47 3 5.2 Possessive adjectives after the noun 48 4 5.3 Definite and neuter articles with possessives 49 5 5.4 Avoidance of ambiguity with su/sus and suyo/a/os/as 49 6 5.5 Parts of the body and personal effects 50 7 5.6 Possessive adjectives with adverbs and prepositions 50 8 Chapter 6 Adjectives 52 9 1011 6.1 Gender 52 1 6.2 Singular and plural of adjectives 55 12111 6.3 Shortening of adjectives 56 3 6.4 Position of adjectives 57 4 6.5 Translating English ‘un-’ + adjective 61 5 6.6 Verb + adjective sequences 62 6 Chapter 7 Adverbs 63 7 8 7.1 Adverbs ending in -mente 63 9 7.2 Adverbs not ending in -mente 65 20111 7.3 Adverbial phrases 68 1 7.4 Adjectives used as adverbs 69 2 3 Chapter 8 Personal pronouns 70 4 8.1 Subject pronouns 72 5 8.2 Direct and indirect object pronouns 74 6 8.3 Prepositional object pronouns 77 7 8.4 Reflexive pronouns 78 8 8.5 The position and order of personal pronouns 80 9 8.6 Use of le(s) in place of lo(s) and la(s) 82 30111 1 Chapter 9 Indefinite adjectives, pronouns and 2 adverbs 84 3 9.1 Algo 84 4 9.2 Alguien 85 5 9.3 Alguno 85 6 9.4 Uno 86 7 9.5 Mucho, poco 87 8 9.6 Bastante, suficiente 88 9 9.7 Varios 88 40 vi 9.8 Demasiado 89 41111 1111 9.9 Todo 89 Contents 2 9.10 Cualquiera 92 3 9.11 Ambos/as 93 4 9.12 Cada 93 5 9.13 Solo 94 6 9.14 Demás 94 7 9.15 Cierto 95 8 9.16 Tal, semejante 95 9 9.17 Otro 96 1011 Chapter 10 Verb forms 97 1 12111 10.1 Present indicative and present subjunctive 98 3 10.2 Imperative 112 4 10.3 Imperfect tense 114 5 10.4 Preterite tense 115 6 10.5 Imperfect subjunctive 120 7 10.6 Future and conditional tenses 121 8 10.7 Future subjunctive 121 9 10.8 Non-finite forms 122 20111 10.9 Compound tenses 124 1 10.10 Progressive or continuous tenses 126 2 3 Chapter 11 Uses of tenses 128 4 11.1 Simple tenses 128 5 11.2 Compound tenses 135 6 11.3 Progressive or continuous tenses 139 7 11.4 Expressions of time with hacer, desde and llevar 141 8 11.5 Verbs like gustar 143 9 30111 Chapter 12 The subjunctive mood 145 1 12.1 Subjunctive in subordinate queclauses 145 2 12.2 Subjunctive required by certain subordinating 3 conjunctions 153 4 12.3 Subjunctive in main clauses 157 5 12.4 The sequence of tenses – which subjunctive tense 6 to use 158 7 12.5 Additional uses of the -ra form of the imperfect 8 subjunctive 159 9 12.6 The future subjunctive 160 40 41111 vii Chapter 13 Conditional clauses 161 1111 Contents 2 13.1 Use of the subjunctive after si 161 3 13.2 Indicative tenses after si 162 4 13.3 Conditional sentences without si 164 5 Chapter 14 Reflexive verbs 165 6 7 14.1 Formation of reflexive verbs 165 8 14.2 Reflexive verbs with a reflexive meaning 166 9 14.3 Reflexive verbs with a reciprocal meaning 166 1011 14.4 Reflexive verbs with an indirect object pronoun 167 1 14.5 Se as an indefinite subject 168 12111 14.6 Reflexive verbs ‘to get/have something done’ 168 3 14.7 Verbs reflexive in form but not in meaning 168 4 14.8 Transitive verbs used reflexively with intransitive 5 meaning 169 6 14.9 Verbs of becoming 171 7 14.10 Emphatic reflexive verbs 172 8 Chapter 15 Passive constructions 176 9 20111 15.1 Serand estarwith the past participle 176 1 15.2 Alternatives to passive constructions 177 2 Chapter 16 Modal auxiliary verbs 182 3 4 16.1 Deber 182 5 16.2 Tener que 183 6 16.3 Haber 184 7 16.4 Querer 184 8 16.5 Poder 185 9 16.6 Saber 187 30111 16.7 Soler 187 1 Chapter 17 Infinitive constructions 188 2 3 17.1 Finite verb + infinitive 188 4 17.2 Prepositions + infinitive 189 5 17.3 Infinitives in impersonal constructions 194 6 17.4 An infinitive as the subject of a verb 194 7 17.5 An infinitive with an explicit subject 195 8 17.6 The infinitive as a verbal noun 196 9 40 viii 41111 1111 Chapter 18 Uses of the gerund 197 Contents 2 18.1 Basic use of the gerund 197 3 18.2 Gerund and main verb with different subjects 198 4 18.3 Gerund in place of a relative clause 198 5 18.4 Gerund with certain verbs 199 6 18.5 Cases where the gerund is not used 200 7 8 Chapter 19 Commands 202 9 19.1 Forms of the imperative 202 1011 19.2 Commands which use the present subjunctive 205 1 19.3 Alternative ways of expressing commands 207 12111 3 Chapter 20 Ser and estar 209 4 20.1 Situations which demand ser 209 5 20.2 Situations which demand estar 211 6 20.3 Ser and estar with adjectives 211 7 20.4 Ser and estar with past participles 214 8 20.5 Special uses of estar 214 9 20111 Chapter 21 Prepositions 215 1 21.1 A 215 2 21.2 Antes de, ante, delante de 220 3 21.3 Bajo, debajo de 220 4 21.4 Con 221 5 21.5 Contra, en contra de 222 6 21.6 De 222 7 21.7 Dentro de, fuera de 224 8 21.8 Desde 225 9 21.9 Detrás de, tras 225 30111 21.10 En, encima de, sobre 226 1 21.11 Enfrente de, frente a 228 2 21.12 Entre 229 3 21.13 Hacia, hasta 229 4 21.14 Según 230 5 21.15 Sin 231 6 21.16 Combinations of prepositions 231 7 21.17 Cuando and donde used as prepositions 232 8 9 40 41111 ix

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