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MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHY PDF

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MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHY IN CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Thisworkmakesavailableforthefirsttimeinonededicatedvolume PhilipvanderEijk’sselectedpapersonthecloseconnectionsthatex- istedbetweenmedicineandphilosophythroughoutantiquity.Medical authorssuchastheHippocraticwriters,Diocles,Galen,Soranusand CaeliusAurelianuselaboratedonphilosophicalmethodssuchascausal explanation,definitionanddivision,applyingconceptssuchastheno- tionofnaturetotheirunderstandingofthehumanbody.Similarly, philosopherssuchasPlatoandAristotlewerehighlyvaluedfortheir contributionstomedicine.Thisinteractionwasparticularlystriking inthestudyofthehumansoulinrelationtothebody,asillustratedby approachestotopicssuchasintellect,sleepanddreams,anddietand drugs.Withadetailedintroductionsurveyingthesubjectasawhole andanewchapteronAristotle’streatmentofsleepanddreams,this wide-rangingcollectionisessentialreadingforstudentsandscholars ofancientphilosophyandscience. philip j. van der eijk is Professor of Greek at the Uni- versity of Newcastle upon Tyne. He has published widely on an- cient philosophy, medicine and science, comparative literature and patristics.HeistheauthorofAristoteles.Deinsomniis.Dedivinatione persomnum(Berlin:AkademieVerlag,1994)andofDioclesofCarystus. A Collection of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary (2vols.,Leiden:Brill,2000–1).Hehaseditedandco-authoredAncient Histories of Medicine. Essays in Medical Doxography and Historiogra- phyinClassicalAntiquity(Leiden:Brill,1999)andco-editedAncient MedicineinitsSocio-CulturalContext(2vols.,AmsterdamandAtlanta: Rodopi,1995). MEDICINE AND PHILOSOPHY IN CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease PHILIP J. VAN DER EIJK ProfessorofGreekattheUniversityofNewcastleuponTyne    Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press TheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridge,UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridg e.org /9780521818001 ©PhilipvanderEijk2005 Thisbookisincopyright.Subjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionof relevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplace withoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPress. Firstpublishedinprintformat 2005 - ---- eBook (MyiLibrary) - --- eBook (MyiLibrary) - ---- hardback - --- hardback CambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyof sforexternalorthird-partyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhisbook,anddoesnot guaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriate. ForArachne Contents Acknowledgements pageix Noteontranslations xiii Noteonabbreviations xiv Introduction 1 i hippocratic corpus and diocles of carystus 1 The‘theology’oftheHippocratictreatiseOntheSacred Disease 45 2 DioclesandtheHippocraticwritingsonthemethodof dieteticsandthelimitsofcausalexplanation 74 3 Tohelp,ortodonoharm.Principlesandpracticesof therapeuticsintheHippocraticCorpusandinthework ofDioclesofCarystus 101 4 Theheart,thebrain,thebloodandthepneuma:Hippocrates, DioclesandAristotleonthelocationofcognitiveprocesses 119 ii aristotle and his school 5 Aristotleonmelancholy 139 6 TheoreticalandempiricalelementsinAristotle’streatmentof sleep,dreamsanddivinationinsleep 169 7 The matter of mind: Aristotle on the biology of ‘psychic’ processesandthebodilyaspectsofthinking 206 vii viii Contents 8 DivinemovementandhumannatureinEudemianEthics8.2 238 9 OnSterility(‘Hist.an.10’),amedicalworkbyAristotle? 259 iii late antiquity 10 Galen’suseoftheconceptof‘qualifiedexperience’inhis dieteticandpharmacologicalworks 279 11 TheMethodismofCaeliusAurelianus:someepistemological issues 299 Bibliography 328 Indexofpassagescited 379 Generalindex 396 Acknowledgements SincetheoriginalpublicationofthesepapersIhavetakentheopportunity tomakesome,mostlyminor,revisionstosomechapters,mainlyonpoints ofstyleandpresentation,inordertoenhanceaccessibility.Thusquotations fromGreekandLatinarenowaccompaniedbyEnglishtranslationsorpara- phrase,andinseveralcaseswordsinGreekscripthavebeentransliterated. I have also in a number of cases taken account of publications that have come out since the paper was first published; there have, however, been no changes to the substance, and all revisions have been clearly marked by square brackets; in some cases I have presented them in the form of a postscriptattheendoftherelevantchapter,soastofacilitatereferenceto theoriginalpublication. Chapter1wasfirstpublishedinApeiron23(1990)87–119,andisreprinted (withslight,mainlystylisticalterations)withthekindpermissionofAca- demicPrintingandPublishing. Chapter2wasfirstpublishedinR.WitternandP.Pellegrin(eds.),Hip- pokratische Medizin und antike Philosophie (Medizin der Antike, Band 1), Hildesheim: Olms, 1996, 229–57, and is reprinted here with the kind permission of Olms Verlag; but the numeration of the Diocles frag- ments, and the translation of fr. 176 printed here have been modified in accordance with the relevant sections in my Diocles of Carystus, Leiden, 2000,whicharereprintedherewiththekindpermissionofBrillAcademic Publishers. Chapter3isaslightlyexpandedversionofapaperpublishedunderthe title ‘The systematic status of therapy in the Hippocratic Corpus and in theworkofDioclesofCarystus’,inI.Garofalo,D.Lami,D.Manettiand A. Roselli (eds.), Aspetti della terapia nel Corpus Hippocraticum, Florence: Olschki, 1999, 389–404, reprinted with the kind permission of Olschki Editore;anabbreviatedversioninDutchappearedunderthetitle‘Helpen, ofnietschaden.Enkeleuitgangspuntenvantherapeutischhandeleninde klassiekeGrieksegeneeskunde’inHermeneus71(1999)66–71. ix

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