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Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus PDF

422 Pages·2011·10.1 MB·English
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JERUSALEM in the Time of Jesus JOACHIM JEREMIAS JERUSALEM in the Time of Jesus An Investigation into Economic and Social Conditions during the New Testament Period FORTRESS PRESS PHILADELPHIA Translated by F. H. and C. H. Cave from the German Jerusalem zur Zeit Jesu 3rd edition published 1962 by Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Gottingen with author's revisions to 1967. An earlier draft translation was contributed by M. E. Dahl. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 77-81530 First published in English 1969 Translation © SCM Press Ltd 1969 Printed in Great Britain C O N T E N TS Translators9 note xi Editions used xii Abbreviations xiii PART ONE ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE CITY OF JERUSALEM I INDUSTRIES 3 A The industries of Jerusalem 4 1. Industries which served the general public 4 A Goods for domestic use 4 B Food trades 6 c Luxury goods 8 D The building trade 10 i. Building activity 10 ii. The building workers 14 (a) Ordinary building 14 Skilled craftsmanship in building 15 (y) Building maintenance 16 E Other trades 17 2. Guilds within individual industries 18 A The layout of the city 18 B The distribution of industries in the city 19 c The organization of the trades 21 3. Industries connected with the Temple 21 A The buildings 21 B The cultus 25 c Organization of Temple workers 26 B The individuality of Jerusalem 27 1. The position of the city 27 2. The political and religious significance of the city 27 II COMMERCE 31 A Evidence of commerce in Jerusalem 31 1. In general 31 vi CONTENTS 2. Foreign trade 35 3. Local trade 38 A Grain 39 B Fruit and vegetables 41 c Livestock 46 D Raw materials 49 B The influence of Jerusalem on commerce 51 1. The city's geographical position 51 2. Political and religious importance of the city 54 III FOREIGN VISITORS 58 A Evidence for foreign visitors in the city 58 1. In general 58 A The Journey to Jerusalem 58 B Accommodation in Jerusalem 60 2. Visitors from a distance 62 A Gaul, etc. 63 B Rome 63 c Greece 64 D Cyprus 64 E Asia Minor 65 F Mesopotamia 66 G Parthia 67 H Syria 68 1 Arabia 68 J Egypt 69 K Cyrene 71 L Ethiopia 71 3. Visitors from within Palestine 71 B The unique character of Jerusalem 73 1. The city's geographical position 73 2. Political and religious importance of the city 73 Excursus The number of pilgrims at Passover 77 Additional Note on calculating the number of festival pilgrims 84 PART Two ECONOMIC STATUS IV THE RICH 87 A The court 87 C O N T E N TS Vll B The wealthy class 92 1. Extravagance 92 2. Representatives of the wealthy class 95 V T HE M I D D LE C L A SS 100 VI T HE P O OR 109 A Slaves and day labourers 110 B The subsidized sections of the population 111 VII D E C I S I VE F A C T O RS IN D E T E R M I N I NG T HE E C O N O M IC C I R C U M S T A N C ES OF T HE P E O P LE OF J E R U S A L EM 120 A Economic and geographic situation of the city 120 1. The cost of living in normal times 120 2. The cost of living in times of emergency 121 B The political situation 123 1. Taxation 124 2. War and spoliation 126 c Religion and cult us 126 1 • Acts of charity 126 2. Pilgrim traffic 134 3. Income from the Cultus 138 Excursus 1 The historicity of Matthew 27.7 138 Excursus 11 Disasters in Jerusalem 140 P A RT T H R EE SOCIAL STATUS ^III T HE C L E R GY 147 A The high priest 147 B The chief priests and chief Levites 160 c The priestly aristocracy 181 Excursus The chronology of Maccabees 182 D The 'ordinary' priests 198 E The Levites 207 F The hereditary character of the priesthood 213 IX T HE L AY N O B I L I TY 222 viii CONTENTS X THE SCRIBES 233 XI THE PHARISEES 246 PART FOUR THE MAINTENANCE OF RACIAL PURITY XII THE STRUCTURE OF THE NATIONAL COMMUNITY 271 XIII ISRAELITES OF PURE ANCESTRY 275 A Legitimacy of ancestry 275 B Historical value of lay genealogies 284 c Civil rights of full Israelites 297 XIV DESPISED TRADES AND JEWISH SLAVES 303 A Despised trades 303 B Jewish slaves 312 XV ILLEGITIMATE ISRAELITES 317 A Israelites with slight blemish 317 1. Illegitimate descendants of priests 317 2. Proselytes 320 3. Freed Gentile slaves 334 B Israelites with grave blemish 337 1. Bastards 337 2. Temple slaves, fatherless, foundlings, eunuchs 342 XVI GENTILE SLAVES 345 XVII THE SAMARITANS 352 XVIII THE SOCIAL POSITION OF WOMEN 359 List of High Priests 377 Jerusalem Scribes 379 Index of Names and Subjects 381 Index of References 385 Old Testament 385 New Testament 388 Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha 392 Qumran Writings 392 CONTENTS ix The Mishnah 393 The Tosephta 396 The Babylonian Talmud 397 The Jerusalem Talmud 399 The Extra-canonical Tractates 400 Midrash Rabbah 400 Josephus 401 Philo 4°4

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