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Environment and aquaculture in developing countries PDF

367 Pages·2004·8.4 MB·English
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--.--- - ....... , G r ..J!} ~ ,-,'':1i 1 ~ ~ '1. I ' 'I ;J'.ll~'-:ll~ L I .",' I . '. .1 t I P 1 I '\1\.1'1.f- 1:\HII'I.J'111 !fl-,.\"'" 1 i 1. \ .. -::...' -I. '..1 1 .1~ -- Environment and ~kaculture in Developing Countries Edited by R.S.V. Pullin H. Rosenthal J.L. Maclean INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR DEUTSCHE GESELLSC%bU?TF UR LIVING AQUATIC TECHNISCHE ZUSAMMENARBEIT RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (GTZ) GmbH Environment and Aquaculture in Developing Countries Edited by Published by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Manage- ment, MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati, Metm Manila, Philippines and Deutwhe Gewllschaft far Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)G mbH, Postfach 5180, D-6236E schborn, Federal Republic of Germany Printed in Manila, Philippines ,Pullin,R .S.V.,H . Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean, Editors. 1993. Environment and aquaculture in developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p. ISSN 0115-4435 ISBN 971-8709-05-3 Cower: Khao Sam Roi Yot (Mountain of Three Hundred Peaks) Natural Park is located in Prachuab Khiri Khan pmvince in Thailand. The 98-kmP park contains a 40-kmP marsh, an important sanctuary for birds which irr listed in the Asian Wetlands Directory of the IUCN as a site of global conservation importance. Vast areas of marsh in the park have been converted into shrimp ponds. The prestigious Siam Society, a national NGO has urged action by the government. Although many of the ahrimp ponds have ceased operation (because of diaeam caused by intensive culture and limited water supply), new ponds were still being constructed in December 1992. Photo courtesy of Peter Edwards. Available at US$15 (surface mail), $22 (airmail), P350 fmm: TCLARM, MCPO Box 2631,0718 M.a kati, Metro Manila, Philippines International Specialized Book Services, 6804 N.E. Hassalo St., Portland, Oregon 97213-3644 USA (use airmail price) Ernst S. Toeche-Mittler GmbH, Versandbuchhandlung, Hindenburgstrasse 33, D-6100 Dannstadt, Gemany (use airmail price). Please make payments payable to ICLARM in US$ by international money order or bankdraft. We can amept US$ checks only if from a US-based bank due to high clearance fees of other banka. ICLARM Contribution No. 941 Contents Foreword M.Bilio ...................................................................................................v.. .. Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................v. ii An Overview of Environmental Issues in Developing-Country Aquaculture R.S.V. Pullin ................................................1. The Impacts of Aquaculture Development on Socioeconomic Environments in Developing Countries: Towards a Paradigm for Assessment K. Ruddle ...................................................................................2..0. . Aquaculture and Management of Freshwater Environments, with Emphasis on Latin America M. Martinez-Espinosa and U.B arg ........................................4..2 Aquaculture and Conservation of Genetic Diversity S. Cataudella and D. Crosetti ......................................................................6..0 Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues in the Developing Countries of Asia I. Csauas ...............................................7 4 The Environmental Consequences of Intensive Coastal Aquaculture in Developed Countries: What Lessons Can Be Learnt R.J. Gowen and H. Rosenthal .........................1 02 Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues in Africa H.R. King ........................................................................................1..1 6 Aquaculture Development and Environmental Issues in the Tropical Pacific J.L. Munro ................................................................1..2 5 Environmental Issues in Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture and Wastewater-Fed Fish Culture Systems P. Edwards ................................ 139 Shrimp Culture and the Environment: Lessons from the World's Most Rapidly Expanding Warmwater Aquaculture Sector M. J. Philips, C. Kwei Lin and M. C. M. Beueridge ...........................................1 71 Discussion on Latin American Shrimp Culture ....................................................1 98 Environmental Management of Coastal Aquaculture Practices and Their Development + T.E.C hua ................................................................1. 99 Environmental Impact of Tropical Inland Aquaculture M.C.M. Beveridge and M.J. Phillips ..............................................................2. 13 Environmental Issues in the Control of Bacterial Diseases of Farmed Fish B. Austin ..............................................................................2.3 7 Developing-Country Aquaculture and Harmful Algal Booms J.L. Maclean .................................................................................................2..5. 2 Microbial Safety of Produce from Wastewater-Fed Aquaculture N . Buras ....................................................................................................2.8..5. Developing-Country Aquaculture. Trace Chemical Contaminants. and Public Health Concerns + D.J.H. Phillips ................................................2.9 6 Discussion and Recommendations on Aquaculture and Environment in Developing Countries Compiled by R.S.V.P ullin ......................................3..1 2 Author Index ...........................................................................................................3.3. 9 Geographic Index ...............................................................................................3...4.. 7 Species Index .........................................................................................................3..5. 1 List of Participants .............................................................................................3.. 5 8 Foreword The resources available to ensure the continuance of life on earth are finite. Any resource can only serve a limited number ofpurposes at the same time and place. This is particularly true of water which is a fundamental requirement not only for aquatic but also for terrestrial organisms. It similarly applies to nutrients and energy. With an increasing demand for food:energy and space by growingpopulation, the pressure of exploitation is reaching alarming levels on an increasing number of species and over an expanding area. To avoid overexploitation and loss, the resources essential for human survival must be used efficiently and wisely. This requires channeling their utilization in ways that fulfill multiple and complementary objectives wherever possible. Modern aquaculture appeared at a time when many claims for use of the resources had been made and competition was growing for those niches still available. Labor was becoming increasingly expensive, leading to intensification in terms of rationalization and mechanization to reduce costs. This meant higher stocking densities and higher demand for feed and energy. Among the most immediate environmental consequencesw ere overloading ofthe waters with nutrients, contamination with chemicals for the treatment of diseases and pests, and ecological damage through the installation of voluminous infrastructure. The demand for feed increased the pressure on other living resources such as small pelagic fish utilized as fishmeal. Most of the more conspicuous mistakes made so far were committed by developed countries. Some at least could have been avoided through more awareness, foresight and readiness to renounce fast profits which were both questionable and harmful in the long term. The most important lesson to be learnt from the past is more consideration for the need to understand better the environmental and social context in which aquaculture is being developed. Such better understanding should then lead to the establishment of a general policy to guide development action in the most promising directions and to keep negative side effects to a minimum. In the majority of developing countries, intensification is of less immediate concern, though on a mid- and long-term basis related problems will gain in importance. The more urgent question is how to make the best possible use of the productivity of natural systems without radical environmental changes and at low levels of costly inputs. What is needed for the future is an approach which makes use of the experience available, adds to the existing know-how through continued research efforts, elaborates and refines guidelines, and creates appropriate frameworks for further development. Aquaculture production is in great demand, but it must not be achieved without due regard to safeguarding our basis of survival. This proceedings volume presents detailed reviews of pertinent environmental issues and the conclusions and recommendations of an international conference convened by the International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusarnmenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH at the Bellagio Conference and Study Centre of the Rockefeller Foundation in September 1990. Only for a few of the issues are clear solutions becoming apparent. Much remains to be done and only intensive collaboration among all parties concerned will bring us closer to success. The results of this conference should be seen as a step in this direction. Dr. Martin Bilio Senior Adviser for Living Aquatic Resources Utilization Deutsche Gesselschaft fiir Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH Federal Republic of Germany Acknowledgements This conference was made possible by the Rockefeller Foundation which offered the use of its magnificent Bellagio Study and Conference Center as the venue and by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, which provided a generous grant to cover organizational and publishing costs. vii An Overview of Environmental Issues in Developing-CountryA quaculture* ROGERS. V. PULLIN International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management MCPO Box 2631,0718 Makati Metro Manila, Philippines PULLM, R.S.V. 1993. An overview of environmental issues in developing-country aquaculture, p. l- 19. In R.S.V.P ullin, H. Rosenthal and J.L. Maclean (eds.) Environment: and aquaculture in developing countries. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 31, 359 p. Abstract Aquaculture, like all interventions by humans to exploit or manage natural resources for food production, has the potential for causing environmental harm as well as for improving livelihood and nutrition. Aquaculture development mustbeundertaken in a broad intersectnral context, considering especially its interactions with agriculture, forestry and capture fisheries and its environmental consequences. This paper examines types of aquaculture development and discusses the concept of sustainability and demographic, political and emnornic factors before giving examples of recent developments and criteria for assessing others. profiles in the political arena, mass media Introduction and public awareness than before. Environmental impacts at the relatj.vely Aquaculture, like all food production new frontier of aquaculture need very by farming, has large effects on the careful attention. environment, many of which can be This paper gives working definitions negative: occupation and fragmentation of terms (aquaculture, developing of former natural habitats; reduction of countries, environment, sustainability and the abundance and diversity of wildlife agroecology) and discusses broad concepts, and changes in soil, water and landscape summarizes the status of developing- quality. The same applies to agriculture country aquaculture and considers the (Simons1988,1989).B ecause farming will future of aquaculture in developing remain the mainstay of most developing- countries, emphasizing the search for country economies for the foreseeable sustainability in the face of rapid change. future and will cause much environmental change, it is essential that the potential negative effects of further development of Aquaculture aquaculture be thoroughly appraised. Environmental protection and nature Aquaculture is defined here as a conservation now have much higher modification of the definition proposed by FA0 (1990a), omitting FAO's criterion *ICEARM Contribution No. 737 that produce can be considered as derived from aquaculture only if raised under Africa, Asia (excluding Japan), Latin individual or corporate ownership. America and Oceania (excluding Australia Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic and New Zealand). This UN report referred organisms, including fish, molluscs, back to a 1963 UN distinction between crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming 'developed' andidevelsping'c ountries based implies some farm of intervention in the on population growth and pronounced it rearing process to enhance production, still valid: such as regular stocking, feeding, No other criterion, be itp er capita protection from predators, etc. (sic) income, urbanization, literacy, industrialization, etc., defines this This definition includes enhanced dichotomy so sharply as the level of fisheries (stock enhancement, aquatic fertility. With exceedingly few ranching and management of natural exceptions, it can be said that where aquatic environments) within the scope of the gross reproduction rate is greater production systems considered. FA0 than 2.0, the country is a 'developing' (1990b) includes in aquaculture statistics one, and where it is less, the country is those "culture-based" fisheries that are 'developed'. stocked annually with propagated Singapore, the Republic of Korea and juveniles, but regards fisheries that are Taiwan are here excludedf rom the definition established through single or intermittent of developing countries. introductions as contributing to capture The Club of Rome recognized the limits fisheries production. to development. Aquaculture can be broadly classified We are further convinced that as extensive, having no feed or fertilizer demographic pressure in the worldhas inputs; semi-intensive, having some already attained such a high level, and is moreover so unequally distributed, fertilizer andlor feed inputs; andintensive, that this alone must compel mankind largely reliant on feed inputs (Edwards et to seek a state of equilibrium on our al. l988a; Pullinl989). Enhanced fisheries planet (Meadows et al. 1972). resemble extensive aquaculture with low So, would 'transformati.on' be a better levels of human intervention. term than development? Probably not, as Classification of aquaculture according to human 'states of equilibrium' are always the economic goals or status of culturists - highly dynamic. Development can be for example as 'subsistence', 'commercial' defined simply as the betterment of living and 'entrepreneurial' - has also been standards for the disadvantaged. attempted but is usually confusing. In Betterment implies improved quality of much of Asia and Africa, fish is 'the other life in, for example, health, education and staple' (other than grains),t he main animal recreation. protein source of the people. All farmers who try something new and profitable can Enuironment be considered 'entrepreneurs' whatever The term 'environment' is defined here the scale of their operations. Subsistence broadly as the whole ecosystem and its aquaculture barely exists. Virtually all nonliving and living resources, including aquaculture has a profit motive in cash or human beings. in kind. Developing Countries and Development Sustainability A developing country is defined here Sustainability has become a largely as in a UN (1989a) report: all of fundamental consideration for all

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