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Concise Encyclopedia of Brain and Language PDF

633 Pages·2011·11.25 MB·English
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C E ONCISE NCYCLOPEDIA OF BRAIN AND LANGUAGE Thispageintentionallyleftblank C E ONCISE NCYCLOPEDIA OF BRAIN AND LANGUAGE VOLUME EDITOR PROFESSOR HARRYA. WHITAKER Northern Michigan University Marquette, MI USA ElsevierLtd.,TheBoulevard,LangfordLane,Kidlington,Oxford,OX51GB,UK Radarweg29,POBox211,1000AEAmsterdam,Netherlands ©2010ElsevierLtd. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorby anymeans,electronic,ormechanical,includingphotocopy,recording,oranyinformation storageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishers. PermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK: phone(+44)1865843830;fax(+44)1865853333;[email protected] Requestsmayalsobecompletedonlineviathehomepage (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions). Materialinthisworkoriginallyappearedin: EncyclopediaofGerontology,Ed.J.E.Birren,ElsevierInc,2007. EncyclopediaofLanguageandLinguistics(2ndEdition),Ed.K.Brown,ElsevierLtd,2006. EncyclopediaofNeuroscience,Ed.L.R.Squire,ElsevierLtd,2009. EncyclopediaoftheNeurologicalSciences,Ed.M.J.AminoffandR.B.Daroff,ElsevierLtd,2003. HandbookoftheNeuroscienceofLanguage,Ed.B.StemmerandH.A.Whitaker,ElsevierLtd,2008. Firstedition2010 LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2009937313 AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary ISBN978-0-08-096498-0 101112131410987654321 Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper PrintedandboundintheUK THE EDITOR HarryWhitaker lives inthe Upper Peninsulaof Michigan,where heis Professor of PsychologyatNorthernMichiganUniversity.HeearnedaPhDfromUCLAin1969, subsequently held an NIH post-doctoral fellowship in Neurology and Speech PathologyattheMayoClinic,Rochester,Minnesota(1971–1972)andtwoNINCDS post-doctoralfellowshipsinNeurosurgeryattheUniversityofWashingtonSchoolof Medicine, Seattle (1976–1977 and 1994–1995). In 2004 he was the Distinguished VisitingProfessorintheDepartmentofPsychologicalandBrainSciences,University of Louisville. Whitaker founded the journal, Brain and Language in 1974 and was editor-in-chiefuntil2004;hefoundedthejournalBrainandCognitionin1982andwas editor-in-chief until 2002. He was elected fellow of the American Psychological Association, Division 6, Physiological and Comparative in 1986, and Division 26, HistoryofPsychology,in1997.Whitakerisafoundingmemberandpast-presidentof theInternationalSocietyfortheHistoryoftheNeurosciencesandamemberofthe MemoryDisordersResearchSociety.Since1965hehaspublishedover115researcharticlesandbookchaptersinsuch journals as Science, Neuropsychologia, Developmental Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology & Behavioral Neurology, ArchivesofNeurology,Nature,Brain,Cortex,andTheJournalofIrreproducibleResults.Hehaseditedorco-edited16books,most recently Brain, Mind and Medicine: Essays in 18th Century Neuroscience, Springer (2007), Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language,Elsevier(2008),andConciseEncylopediaofBrainandLanguage,Elsevier(2009). v Thispageintentionallyleftblank COORDINATING EDITORS JamesE.BirrenEd.EncyclopediaofGerontology,ElsevierInc,2007. KeithBrownEd.EncyclopediaofLanguageandLinguistics(2ndEdition),ElsevierLtd,2006. LarryR.SquireEd.EncyclopediaofNeuroscience,ElsevierLtd,2009. MichaelJ.AminoffEd.EncyclopediaoftheNeurologicalSciences,ElsevierLtd,2003. RobertB.DaroffEd.EncyclopediaoftheNeurologicalSciences,ElsevierLtd,2003. BrigitteStemmerEd.HandbookoftheNeuroscienceofLanguage,ElsevierLtd,2008. vii Thispageintentionallyleftblank CONTENTS Contents ix–xiii SubjectClassification xv–xvii Introduction xix–xx Contributors xxi–xxiv ListofAbbreviations xxv–xxix A Agnosia D TranelandNL Denburg 1 AgrammatismI,ProcessApproaches H Kolk 3 AgrammatismII,LinguisticApproaches A Beretta 9 Agrammatism G Miceli 14 Agraphia SW Anderson,D Tranel,andNL Denburg 17 Alzheimer’sDisease MDGreicius,HJRosen,andBLMiller 19 Amnesia,Functional M Kritchevsky 23 Amnesia,DeclarativeandNondeclarativeMemory LR Squire,PJ Bayley,andCN Smith 30 Amusia CE Hou 35 AnatomicalAsymmetriesVersusVariabilityofLanguageAreasoftheBrain O SelnesandHA Whitaker 37 AngularGyrusSyndrome A Boxer 40 Anomia A Kertesz 42 Anosognosia RP Friedland 46 Aphasia,SuddenandProgressive M-M Mesulam 49 Apraxia,HandednessandLanguageLaterality O Selnes 54 Apraxia,SensorySystem LJ BuxbaumandHB Coslett 57 Attention-Deficit/HyperactivityDisorder(ADHD) SP Hinshaw 63 AuditoryCortexStructureandCircuitry D Barbour 66 AutismandAspergerSyndrome,ASpectrumofDisability H CohenandS Re´millard 72 B Balint’sSyndrome RA ShortandNR Graff-Radford 77 Behavior,NeuralBasisof M BenoitandPH Robert 79 ix

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