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Cloud Computing: Technologies and Strategies of the Ubiquitous PDF

275 Pages·2012·1.86 MB·English
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Cloud Computing Technologies and Strategies of the Ubiquitous Data Center K10303_C000a.indd 1 3/10/10 10:50:15 AM Cloud Computing Technologies and Strategies of the Ubiquitous Data Center Brian J.S. Chee and Curtis Franklin, Jr. K10303_C000a.indd 3 3/10/10 10:50:15 AM CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4398-0612-8 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint. Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information stor- age or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copy- right.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that pro- vides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a pho- tocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com K10303_C000a.indd 4 3/10/10 10:50:15 AM Contents Preface xi Acknowledgments xv About the Authors xvii Chapter 1 What Is a Cloud? 1 In This Chapter 1 In the Beginning 2 Computer Services Become Abstract 4 The ISO-OSI Model: Seven Layers of Abstraction 5 ODBC: The Abstract Database 7 OpenGL: Abstract Images 7 Demand Abstraction 10 What Can You Do with a Cloud? 12 Beowulf 13 Grid Computing 14 Virtualization 15 What Would You Like in Your Cloud? 16 The Anytime, Anyplace Cloud 18 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 1 19 Chapter 2 Grids, HPCs, and Clouds 21 In This Chapter 21 Scientific Computing and Its Contribution to Clouds 22 Defining Terms: Grids and HPCs 22 Software for Grids and HPCs 24 v vi Cloud Computing Examples of Grid Applications 26 A Grid for the Stars 26 A Grid for Proteins 27 High-Performance Computing in Blue Hawaii 30 Scheduling Grids and HPCs 31 How Grid Scheduling Works 33 Phase I: Resource Discovery 33 Phase II: System Selection 35 Phase III: Job Execution 36 Grid Versus HPC Versus Cloud 38 Cloud Development Stage 1: Software as a Service and Web 2.0 39 Cloud Development Stage 2: Hosted Virtualization 40 Cloud Development Stage 2.5: Playing the “Energy Savings” Card 40 Cloud Development Stage 3: True Clouds 41 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 2 42 Chapter 3 Virtualization and the Cloud: What’s the Difference? 45 In This Chapter 45 Virtualization as the Foundation for Clouds 46 The Missing Link Between Virtualization and Clouds 48 Virtualization: Abstraction in a Box 49 Instances 52 Managing Instances 54 Beginning and Perfecting Cloud Computing 55 Utopian Clouds? 57 Accounting for Clouds 59 A Matter of Trust 60 Self-Provisioned Virtual Servers 60 From Virtual Computing to the Cloud 62 Developing into the Cloud 63 Clouds: Minimum Commitments and Maximum Limits 63 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 3 64 Chapter 4 Applications for Clouds 67 In This Chapter 67 Introduction 68 Browser Versus Desktop (aka Thick Versus Thin) 69 Contents vii Plug-ins and Code Generators 70 The Advantages of Low-Level Languages 71 A Brief History of High-Level Languages 73 Database Abstraction and Putting the Database on the Web 75 Different Clouds for Different Applications 76 Processing Clouds 77 Storage Clouds 79 Email Protection Clouds 82 Strategies for Getting People into Clouds 82 Throwaway Clouds 84 Traveling Clouds 84 Occasional-Use Clouds 85 Company in a Box 87 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 4 89 Chapter 5 Business in the Cloud 91 In This Chapter 91 Business Concerns About IT 92 Can Your Business Cloud? 93 Bandwidth and Business Limits 94 Testing for Clouds 95 Remote Access and the Long March to the Clouds 96 Traditional Server Load Balancing 97 The Virtualization Load Response 99 Computing on Demand as a Business Strategy 101 The Cloud Model for Partnerships 104 Seeding the Clouds of Federation 107 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 5 111 Chapter 6 Cloud Providers 113 In This Chapter 113 Marketing the Cloud 115 The “Cloud City Market” 116 Amazon 117 Google 125 Microsoft 127 Client-Server and Other Asynchronous Methods 131 Other Clouds 132 Emerging Cloud Tools 134 viii Cloud Computing Application Clouds 136 Personal Productivity Clouds 137 Trends Driving Us Toward Clouds 137 Zoho 138 SaaS Apps Turning into Clouds 139 The Edge of the Cloud 139 Energy Clouds 141 Who’s Who in the Clouds? 141 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 6 142 Chapter 7 Cloud Issues 145 In This Chapter 145 Stability 147 Partner Quality 149 Longevity 151 Business Continuity 153 Service-Level Agreements 154 Differing Opinions 154 Agreeing on the Service of Clouds 159 Solving Problems 162 What It Takes to Reach an Agreement 163 Quality of Service 164 Quality in the Cloud 165 Security in the Cloud 167 How Big Is Your Fence? 167 Where Is Your Fence? 168 Regulatory Issues and Accountability 169 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 7 171 Chapter 8 Strategies for Clouds 173 In This Chapter 173 Key Cloud Strategies: First Steps 174 Thinking About Peaks and Valleys 181 Energy Issues 183 Experiments and Wild Hares 186 Dipping Your Toes into Virtualization 187 Planning for Success 193 Trial Projects for the Cloud 194 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 8 195 Contents ix Chapter 9 Cloud Security 197 In This Chapter 197 What Can You Do with Cloud Security? 198 Cloud Authentication 201 Cloud Filtering 204 Why Is Cloud Security Good? 206 What Are the Limits of Cloud Security? 207 What Is the Future of Cloud Security? 209 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 9 210 Chapter 10 The Future of the Cloud 211 In This Chapter 211 Putting Our Crystal Ball into Perspective 212 Cloud Development Tools in Perspective 214 Clouds of Different Types 217 Media Clouds 218 Security Clouds 219 App-Specific Clouds 220 Office Desktop and Groupware Clouds 221 Computing Clouds 224 Mobile Clouds 226 Changing the Definition of Virtualization 230 Making Your Application Cloud Aware 231 What Should a Cloud Descriptor Language Contain? 231 What Are the Back Office Issues, and How Do You Pay for a Cloud? 232 The Cloud Is the Computer 234 Clouds Flight Path for Chapter 10 235 Glossary 237 Index 265 Preface This book looks at cloud computing from a manager’s perspective, and it provides information that a manager can use to engage those who want to talk about the mechanics of application design or the intricacies of finance. There are certainly many subject-matter experts on various middleware frameworks or the return on investment of virtualized environments who could take the discussion much farther than this book will be able to go. That’s fine. If you can begin the discussion, ask intelligent questions, and follow along as the conversation begins to go into detail in one direction or another, then this book will have done the job we intended. What is it about cloud computing that demands that a book be writ- ten (and, more important, read)? One of the most important reasons is that cloud computing is a major trend in information processing today. Consumers and enterprises alike are embracing the notion that they need computing services—something that happens—rather than computing devices—something that sits in the corner. The basic realization that one can have access to a critical service without having to find room for a box that sits in the corner is at the heart of cloud computing. Of course, if that realization were all there was to cloud computing, then this would be a very thin book indeed. Unfortunately, one of the key qualities of clouds is that they are confusing. What are they? How are clouds different than virtualization? Should my organization use a cloud (or multiple clouds)? Can both clouds and virtualization play significant roles in my organization at the same time? These are just four of the ques- tions that come to mind about the topic that might just be the biggest thing in computing in a generation (or, possibly, might be a passing fad xi

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