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Building a Better Vocabulary PDF

291 Pages·2015·1.48 MB·English
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Subtopic Topic Communication Professional Skills Building a Better Vocabulary Course Guidebook Professor Kevin Flanigan West Chester University of Pennsylvania PUBLISHED BY: THE GREAT COURSES Corporate Headquarters 4840 Westfields Boulevard, Suite 500 Chantilly, Virginia 20151-2299 Phone: 1-800-832-2412 Fax: 703-378-3819 www.thegreatcourses.com Copyright © The Teaching Company, 2015 Printed in the United States of America This book is in copyright. All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of The Teaching Company. Kevin Flanigan, Ph.D. Professor of Education West Chester University of Pennsylvania P rofessor Kevin Flanigan is a Professor of Education in the Literacy Department at West Chester University of Pennsylvania, where he has taught since 2003. He is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Mary Washington College (now the University of Mary Washington), where he received a B.A. in History, summa cum laude. Later, he received an M.Ed. from James Madison University and an M.Ed. in Reading Education from the University of Virginia. After working as a middle grades classroom teacher and reading specialist, he received his Ph.D. in Reading Education from the University of Virginia, with a dissertation on emergent readers’ developing concept of word in text. Professor Flanigan’s research, publications, and presentations focus on developmental word knowledge, vocabulary development and instruction, and interventions for students who struggle with literacy skills. He has presented frequently at national and international conferences and works with schools and teachers to implement effective literacy instruction. In 2011, Professor Flanigan was nominated for the U.S. Professors of the Year Award by West Chester University. In 2009, Professor Flanigan and his colleagues received an Educator 500 award for innovative teaching in the Kennett Experience, a university–public school partnership. Professor Flanigan teaches graduate and undergraduate literacy education courses and works in the West Chester University Reading Center, where he supervises graduate-level teachers as they work with students in kindergarten through 12th grade who struggle with literacy skills. (cid:51)(cid:85)(cid:82)(cid:73)(cid:72)(cid:86)(cid:86)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:3)(cid:41)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:76)(cid:74)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:3)(cid:76)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:191)(cid:85)(cid:86)(cid:87)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:88)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:3)(cid:82)(cid:73)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:70)(cid:82)(cid:68)(cid:88)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:69)(cid:82)(cid:82)(cid:78)(cid:3)Words Their Way with Struggling Readers: Word Study for Reading, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction, Grades 4–12. He is also coauthor of Vocabulary Their i Way: Word Study with Middle and Secondary Students (2nd edition) and Developing Word Recognition. In addition, Professor Flanigan is a member of the authorship team for Vocabulary Their Way: Words and Strategies for Academic Success, a vocabulary program for middle school students. The professor has authored or coauthored articles in a number of professional journals, including The Reading Teacher, the Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, and the Journal of Literacy Research(cid:17)(cid:3)(cid:374) ii Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Professor Biography ............................................................................i Course Scope .....................................................................................1 LECTURE GUIDES LECTURE 1 Five Principles for Learning Vocabulary .............................................3 LECTURE 2 The Spelling-Meaning Connection ...................................................10 LECTURE 3 Words for Lying, Swindling, and Conniving ......................................17 LECTURE 4 Words That Express Annoyance and Disgust ..................................24 LECTURE 5 Fighting Words and Peaceful Words ................................................31 LECTURE 6 Going beyond Dictionary Meanings..................................................38 LECTURE 7 Wicked Words ..................................................................................46 LECTURE 8 Words for Beginnings and Endings ..................................................52 LECTURE 9 Words Expressing Fear, Love, and Hatred .......................................58 LECTURE 10 Words for the Everyday and the Elite ...............................................63 iii Table of Contents LECTURE 11 Words from Gods and Heroes ..........................................................69 LECTURE 12 Humble Words and Prideful Words ..................................................76 LECTURE 13 High-Frequency Greek and Latin Roots ...........................................83 LECTURE 14 Words Relating to Belief and Trust ...................................................90 LECTURE 15 Words for the Way We Talk ..............................................................97 LECTURE 16 Words for Praise, Criticism, and Nonsense ....................................104 LECTURE 17 Eponyms from Literature and History .............................................111 LECTURE 18 Thinking, Teaching, and Learning Words .......................................119 LECTURE 19 Words for the Diligent and the Lazy ...............................................126 LECTURE 20 Words That Break and Words That Join .........................................132 LECTURE 21 (cid:54)(cid:82)(cid:80)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:43)(cid:76)(cid:74)(cid:75)(cid:16)(cid:56)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:79)(cid:76)(cid:87)(cid:92)(cid:3)(cid:42)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:72)(cid:78)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:47)(cid:68)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:3)(cid:36)(cid:73)(cid:191)(cid:91)(cid:72)(cid:86)......................................139 LECTURE 22 Cranky Words and Cool Words ......................................................145 LECTURE 23 Words for Courage and Cowardice ................................................151 iv Table of Contents LECTURE 24 Reviewing Vocabulary through Literature .......................................158 LECTURE 25 Words for Killing and Cutting ..........................................................165 LECTURE 26 A Vocabulary Grab Bag ..................................................................171 LECTURE 27 Words for Words .............................................................................176 LECTURE 28 Specialty Words for Language .......................................................182 LECTURE 29 Nasty Words and Nice Words ........................................................192 LECTURE 30 Words for the Really Big and the Very Small ..................................198 LECTURE 31 Spelling as a Vocabulary Tool ........................................................205 LECTURE 32 A Medley of New Words .................................................................212 LECTURE 33 Building Vocabulary through Games ..............................................217 LECTURE 34 Words English Borrowed and Never Returned ...............................224 LECTURE 35 More Foreign Loan Words ..............................................................232 LECTURE 36 Forgotten Words and Neologisms .................................................237 v Table of Contents SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Answers to Review Questions ........................................................245 Glossary of Target Words ...............................................................263 Bibliography ....................................................................................279 vi Building a Better Vocabulary Scope: I n one of the most insightful statements on vocabulary ever penned, Mark Twain said, “The difference between the almost right word and the right word is really a large matter—’tis the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning.” As Mark Twain knew, a powerful vocabulary consists of more than simply knowing a lot of words; it’s the ability to grasp the “just right” word to communicate precisely what you want to say or write. Acquiring the type of deep and nuanced vocabulary knowledge that Twain was talking about doesn’t come from simply studying lists of vocabulary (cid:90)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:71)(cid:86)(cid:3) (cid:68)(cid:79)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:74)(cid:86)(cid:76)(cid:71)(cid:72)(cid:3) (cid:71)(cid:76)(cid:70)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:92)(cid:3) (cid:71)(cid:72)(cid:191)(cid:81)(cid:76)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:86)(cid:17)(cid:3) (cid:55)(cid:75)(cid:76)(cid:86)(cid:3) (cid:87)(cid:85)(cid:68)(cid:71)(cid:76)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:68)(cid:79)(cid:3) (cid:179)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:72)(cid:16)(cid:90)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:71)(cid:16)(cid:68)(cid:87)(cid:16)(cid:68)(cid:16) time” approach that many of us experienced in school often leads to surface- level vocabulary knowledge that lasts only until the Friday quiz. (cid:44)(cid:81)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:76)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:70)(cid:82)(cid:88)(cid:85)(cid:86)(cid:72)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:92)(cid:82)(cid:88)(cid:182)(cid:79)(cid:79)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:81)(cid:3)(cid:75)(cid:82)(cid:90)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:82)(cid:3)(cid:80)(cid:82)(cid:89)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:69)(cid:72)(cid:92)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:71)(cid:72)(cid:191)(cid:81)(cid:76)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:68)(cid:79)(cid:3)(cid:89)(cid:82)(cid:70)(cid:68)(cid:69)(cid:88)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:92)(cid:3) (cid:78)(cid:81)(cid:82)(cid:90)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:71)(cid:74)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:82)(cid:90)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:3)(cid:85)(cid:76)(cid:70)(cid:75)(cid:3)(cid:89)(cid:82)(cid:70)(cid:68)(cid:69)(cid:88)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:92)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:68)(cid:87)(cid:182)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:69)(cid:85)(cid:82)(cid:68)(cid:71)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:71)(cid:72)(cid:72)(cid:83)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:192)(cid:72)(cid:91)(cid:76)(cid:69)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:86)(cid:87)(cid:86)(cid:3) (cid:68)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:76)(cid:73)(cid:72)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:80)(cid:72)(cid:17)(cid:3)(cid:55)(cid:82)(cid:3)(cid:71)(cid:82)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:76)(cid:86)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:90)(cid:72)(cid:182)(cid:79)(cid:79)(cid:3)(cid:70)(cid:82)(cid:89)(cid:72)(cid:85)(cid:3)(cid:191)(cid:89)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:70)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:83)(cid:85)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:70)(cid:76)(cid:83)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:82)(cid:73)(cid:3)(cid:89)(cid:82)(cid:70)(cid:68)(cid:69)(cid:88)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:92)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:81)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:74)(cid:3) (cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:191)(cid:85)(cid:86)(cid:87)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:70)(cid:87)(cid:88)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:17)(cid:3)(cid:55)(cid:75)(cid:72)(cid:86)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:83)(cid:85)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:70)(cid:76)(cid:83)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:90)(cid:76)(cid:79)(cid:79)(cid:3)(cid:86)(cid:72)(cid:85)(cid:89)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:82)(cid:82)(cid:79)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:3)(cid:92)(cid:82)(cid:88)(cid:85)(cid:3)(cid:89)(cid:82)(cid:70)(cid:68)(cid:69)(cid:88)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:92)(cid:3) toolbox that you can apply as we explore new target words throughout the course. You will use these tools to learn word meanings deeply so that you’ll remember and be able to use the words years from now. As we move through the lectures, we’ll meet and explore a host of vocabulary words that are, by turns, snappy, lively, powerful, and beautiful, such as (cid:74)(cid:68)(cid:71)(cid:192)(cid:92), Promethean, (cid:74)(cid:72)(cid:80)(cid:460)(cid:87)(cid:79)(cid:76)(cid:70)(cid:75)(cid:78)(cid:72)(cid:76)(cid:87), and hornswoggle. The lectures are organized thematically; for example, in a lecture on liars and swindlers, we’ll (cid:72)(cid:91)(cid:68)(cid:80)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:3)(cid:86)(cid:72)(cid:87)(cid:3)(cid:82)(cid:73)(cid:3)(cid:90)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:71)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:73)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:3)(cid:70)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:81)(cid:76)(cid:89)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:74)(cid:3)(cid:192)(cid:76)(cid:80)(cid:192)(cid:68)(cid:80)(cid:80)(cid:72)(cid:85)(cid:86)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:86)(cid:88)(cid:70)(cid:75)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:80)(cid:82)(cid:88)(cid:81)(cid:87)(cid:72)(cid:69)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:78)(cid:86) and sophists, honoring the way our minds organize vocabulary by meaning. We’ll also take the time to examine words in rich context to get a better feel for how to actually use them in speaking and writing. In addition, you’ll learn to make personal connections to word meanings so that these words “stick” in your lexicon—the mental library of word meanings we all possess. Along the way, we’ll see that there’s no such thing as an exact synonym 1 (cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:72)(cid:91)(cid:83)(cid:79)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:75)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:191)(cid:81)(cid:72)(cid:85)(cid:3)(cid:71)(cid:76)(cid:86)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:70)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:3)(cid:80)(cid:72)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:74)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:80)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:74)(cid:3)(cid:70)(cid:79)(cid:82)(cid:86)(cid:72)(cid:79)(cid:92)(cid:3)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:87)(cid:72)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:90)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:71)(cid:86)(cid:30)(cid:3) in the end, you’ll know the difference between such words as specious and spurious and when to use each. Importantly, we will also delve into the etymology and morphology of words—that is, their history and structure. This will enable you to harness the power of the “meaning system” that is deeply embedded in the DNA of the English language, applying your growing knowledge of high-utility Latin (cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:42)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:72)(cid:78)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:73)(cid:191)(cid:91)(cid:72)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:85)(cid:82)(cid:82)(cid:87)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:87)(cid:82)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:81)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:86)(cid:87)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:72)(cid:15)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:81)(cid:71)(cid:3)(cid:80)(cid:68)(cid:78)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:70)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:81)(cid:72)(cid:70)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:86)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:80)(cid:82)(cid:81)(cid:74)(cid:3) words. To guide your learning, you will also create a vocabulary notebook that will serve as a place to collect your growing vocabulary. By the end of this course, you’ll know many new, powerful, and beautiful vocabulary words. Just as importantly, you’ll know how to learn vocabulary for yourself. You’ll have your own toolbox of strategies and resources that (cid:90)(cid:76)(cid:79)(cid:79)(cid:3)(cid:72)(cid:84)(cid:88)(cid:76)(cid:83)(cid:3)(cid:92)(cid:82)(cid:88)(cid:3)(cid:73)(cid:82)(cid:85)(cid:3)(cid:68)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:76)(cid:73)(cid:72)(cid:87)(cid:76)(cid:80)(cid:72)(cid:3)(cid:82)(cid:73)(cid:3)(cid:89)(cid:82)(cid:70)(cid:68)(cid:69)(cid:88)(cid:79)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:92)(cid:3)(cid:79)(cid:72)(cid:68)(cid:85)(cid:81)(cid:76)(cid:81)(cid:74)(cid:17)(cid:3)(cid:374) e p o c S 2

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