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Advanced Unsaturated Soil Mechanics and Engineering PDF

710 Pages·2007·7.78 MB·English
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Advanced Unsaturated Soil Mechanics and Engineering Also available from Taylor & Francis Ground Improvement 2nd edition K Kirsch et al. Hb: ISBN 978–0–415–27455–5 Geotechnical Modelling D Muir Wood Hb: ISBN 978–0–415–34304–6 Pb: ISBN 978–0–419–23730–3 Cone Penetration Testing in Geotechnical Practice T Lunne et al. Hb: ISBN 978–0–419–23750–1 Soil Liquefaction M Jefferies et al. Hb: ISBN 978–0–419–16170–7 Introductory Geotechnical Engineering HY Fang et al. Hb: ISBN 978–0–415–30401–6 Pb: ISBN 978–0–415–30402–3 Information and ordering details For price availability and ordering visit our website www.tandfbuiltenvironment.com Alternatively our books are available from all good bookshops. Advanced Unsaturated Soil Mechanics and Engineering Charles W.W. Ng and Bruce Menzies Firstpublished2007 byTaylor&Francis 2ParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOX144RN SimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanada byTaylor&Francis 270MadisonAve,NewYork,NY10016,USA This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” Taylor&FrancisisanimprintoftheTaylor&FrancisGroup,aninforma business ©2007CharlesW.W.NgandBruceMenzies Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereprintedor reproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,or othermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopying andrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,without permissioninwritingfromthepublishers. Thepublishermakesnorepresentation,expressorimplied,withregard totheaccuracyoftheinformationcontainedinthisbookandcannot acceptanylegalresponsibilityorliabilityforanyeffortsor omissionsthatmaybemade. BritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationData AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData Ng,C.W.W. Unsaturatedsoilmechanicsandengineering/CharlesW.W.Ngand BruceMenzies. p.cm. Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex. ISBN978-0-415-43679-3(hardback:alk.paper)-- ISBN978-0-203-93972-7(ebook)1.Soilmechanics.2.Swellingsoils. 3.Zoneofaeration.4.Soilmoisture.I.Menzies,BruceKeith.II.Title. TA710.N4752007 624.1(cid:2)5136--dc22 2007008742 ISBN 0-203-93972-7 Master e-book ISBN ISBN978–0–415–43679–3Hardback ISBN978–0–203–93972–7eBook Dedicated To Professor Delwyn G. Fredlund, Unsaturated Soil Mechanics Pioneer Delwyn G. Fredlund O.C., Ph.D., F.E.I.C., P.Eng. Senior Geotechnical Engineering Specialist, Golder Associates, 2005– Professor Emeritus, University of Saskatchewan, from 2000 K.P. Chao Chair, Zhejiang University, 2007–2009 AdjunctProfessor,HongKongUniversityofScienceandTechnology,2001– Adjunct Professor, University of Alberta, 2002– Honorary Professor, University of British Columbia, 2002– Research Professor, Arizona State University, 2004– If you learn to think the way unsaturated soil behaves, then you will make wise engineering decisions. (Del Fredlund’s advice to students) Cover Frontispiece GDS pneumatic controllers, σr, ua GDS digital transducer interface GDS hydraulic pressure/volume controllers, σa, uw HKUST total volume change measuring system Bishop & Wesley triaxial cell (a) Diffused air volume indicator (b) q Differential pressure transducer q = μ(s) + M(s)p (critical state) Reference tube q = ηy(p + μ(s)/M(s)) (fs yield surface) Inner chamber M(s) p = p0(s) μ(s) ηy (fc yield surface) Ðμ(s)/M(s)) p (d) (c) Imagesthatrepresentthecontentofthisbook:(a)Retrogressivefailuresinanunsaturated expansivesoilslope(Ngetal.,2003);(b)HKUST–GDScomputercontrolledtriaxialstress- path apparatus equipped with double wall total volume measuring system; (c) HKUST measurement of total volume change (double wall system) using a differential pressure transducer(Ngetal.,2002);(d)Yieldsurfaceinq−pspaceatconstantsuction(Chiuand Ng,2003). Book overview Civil engineers build on or in the earth’s surface. Most of the earth’s land surface comprises notoriously hazardous geomaterials called ‘unsaturated soils’. These soils are a hazard to earth structures and earth-supported structures because on wetting, by rain or other means, they can expand or collapse with serious consequences for cost and safety. This book puts the mechanics and engineering of unsaturated soils into a logical framework forcivilengineeringanalysisanddesign.Italsoexplainsthelaboratoryand fieldtestingandresearchthatarethelogicalbasisofthismodernapproach to safe construction in these hazardous geomaterials. This state-of-the-art book is written in four parts as follows: 1. Physical and flow characteristics of unsaturated soils; 2. Collapse, swelling, shear strength and stiffness of unsaturated soils; 3. State-dependent elasto-plastic modelling of unsaturated soils; 4. Field trials and numerical studies in slope engineering of unsatu- rated soils. This book is unique because: • itillustratestheimportanceofstate-dependentsoil–watercharacteristic curves; • highlights modern soil testing of unsaturated soil behaviour, including accuratemeasurementoftotalvolumechangesandthemeasurementof anisotropic soil stiffness at very small strains; • introduces an advanced state-dependent elasto-plastic constitutive model for both saturated and unsaturated soil; • demonstrates the power of numerical analysis which is at the heart of modern soil mechanics; • studies and simulates the behaviour of loose fills from unsaturated to saturated states, explains the difference between strain-softening and static liquefaction, and describes real applications in unsaturated soil slope engineering; • includespurpose-designedfieldtrialstocapturetheeffectsoftwoinde- pendent stress variables, and reports comprehensive measurements of soilsuction,watercontents,stresschangesandgrounddeformationsin bare slopes; • introduces a new conjunctive surface and subsurface transient flow model for realistically analysing rainfall infiltration in unsaturated soil slopes, and illustrates the importance of the flow model in slope engi- neering. Contents Authors’ biographical details xiii Preface xiv Acknowledgements xvii PART 1 Physical and flow characteristics of unsaturated soils 1 Part 1 Frontispiece 2 Chapter synopses 3 1 Basic physics, phases and stress state variables 5 Sources 5 Introduction (Fredlund, 1996) 5 Four-phase materials (Fredlund and Rahardjo, 1993) 20 Cavitation (Young, 1989; Marinho, 1995; Marinho and de Sousa Pinto, 1997) 24 2 Measurement and control of suction: methods and applications 31 Sources 31 Theory of soil suction (Fredlund and Rahardjo, 1993) 32 The capillary model 32 Suction control and measurement methods (Ng and Chen, 2005, 2006; Ng et al., 2007a) 36 Suction measuring devices (Fredlund and Rahardjo, 1993; Ridley and Wray, 1995; Feng and Fredlund, 2003) 63 Case study: comparisons of in situ suction measurements (Harrison and Blight, 2000) 87

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