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The Psychology of Eating PDF

394 Pages·2010·1.09 MB·English
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The Psychology of Eating The Psychology of Eating From Healthy to Disordered Behavior 2nd edition Jane Ogden A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication This edition first published 2010 © 2010 Jane Ogden Edition history: Blackwell Publishing. (1e, 2003) Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’s publishing program has been merged with Wiley’s global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell. Registered Office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom Editorial Offices 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell. The right of Jane Ogden to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ogden, Jane, 1966– The psychology of eating : from healthy to disordered behavior / Jane Ogden. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4051-9121-0 (hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-1-4051-9120-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Eating disorders. 2. Appetite disorders. 3. Food habits. I. Title. RC552.E18O47 2010 616.85′26–dc22 2009035840 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Set in 10.5/13pt Minion by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed in Malaysia 1 2010 Contents List of Figures viii Foreword – Janet Polivy x Acknowledgments xiii Chapter 1 Introduction 1 The Aim of This Book 1 The Focus of This Book 2 The Structure of This Book 2 Further Reading 5 Chapter 2 Healthy Eating 8 What Is Healthy Eating? 8 The Role of Diet in Contributing to Illness 11 The Role of Diet in Treating Illness 16 Who Has a Healthy Diet? 20 The Impact of Health Concerns 27 A Note on Measuring Food Intake 28 Conclusion 30 Chapter 3 Food Choice 31 Developmental Models of Food Choice 32 Cognitive Models of Food Choice 43 Psychophysiological Models of Food Choice 49 Conclusion 61 vi Contents Chapter 4 The Meaning of Food 63 Food Classification Systems 64 Food as a Statement of the Self 66 Food as Social Interaction 72 Food as Cultural Identity 74 Measuring Beliefs About the Meaning of Food 80 Conclusion 80 Chapter 5 The Meaning of Size 82 Media Representations 82 The Meaning of Sex 87 The Meaning of Size 88 Conclusion 96 Chapter 6 Body Dissatisfaction 97 What Is Body Dissatisfaction? 97 Who Is Dissatisfied With Their Body? 100 Causes of Body Dissatisfaction 105 Consequences of Body Dissatisfaction 112 Conclusion 115 Chapter 7 Dieting 116 Putting Dieting in Context 116 The Dieting Industry 121 What Is Dieting? 127 Dieting and Overeating 130 The Consequences of Dieting 138 Problems With Restraint Theory 142 Conclusion 146 Chapter 8 Obesity 148 What Is Obesity? 148 How Common Is Obesity? 151 What Are the Consequences of Obesity? 152 What Are the Causes of Obesity? 157 Physiological Theories 157 Contents vii The Obesogenic Environment 163 Problems With Obesity Research 177 Conclusion 179 Chapter 9 Obesity Treatment 180 Doctors’ Beliefs About Obesity 180 Dietary Interventions 182 Should Obesity Be Treated at All? 187 The Treatment Alternatives 190 The Success Stories 201 Preventing Obesity 206 Conclusion 209 Chapter 10 Eating Disorders 211 Anorexia Nervosa 211 What Are the Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa? 220 Bulimia Nervosa 225 What Are the Consequences of Bulimia Nervosa? 230 Causes of Eating Disorders 233 Conclusion 252 Chapter 11 Treating Eating Disorders 254 Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy 255 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) 259 Family Therapy 264 Inpatient Treatment 267 An Integrated Approach to Treatment 273 Chapter 12 An Integrated Model of Diet 276 A Summary of the Literature on Diet 276 Common Themes Across the Literature on Eating Behavior 279 An Integrated Model of Diet 285 Conclusion 286 References 288 Author Index 351 Subject Index 365 List of Figures 1.1 From healthy to disordered eating: A spectrum of diet 3 2.1 Healthy eating 10 2.2 Healthy eating in young adults 23 3.1 Food choice 33 3.2 Social eating 36 3.3 The basics of the theory of reasoned action 44 3.4 The basics of the theory of planned behavior 45 3.5 Neurochemicals and food choice 54 4.1 The meaning of food 66 4.2 Food and sex 67 4.3 Food: Guilt versus pleasure 70 4.4 Food as self-control 71 4.5 Food and the family 73 4.6 Food: Health versus pleasure 75 4.7 Food and religion 76 5.1 Contemporary ideals of beauty 86 5.2 The meaning of size 89 5.3 The meaning of size: Control 92 5.4 The meaning of size: Success 94 6.1 Body dissatisfaction 99 6.2 Body silhouettes for adults 99 6.3 Smoking as a response to body dissatisfaction 113 7.1 “Diets work” 124 7.2 The central role for control 127 7.3 Dieting and overeating 129 7.4 The boundary model of overeating 132 7.5 A comparison of the boundaries for different types of eating 133

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