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Krause's Food & the Nutrition Care Process PDF

1248 Pages·2012·English
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Cover image Page: 1 Title page Page: 2 Table of Contents Page: 3 Copyright Page: 6 Dedication Page: 7 Contributors Page: 8 Reviewers Page: 10 Foreword Page: 11 Preface Page: 12 Acknowledgments Page: 14 Part 1: Nutrition Assessment Page: 15 Introduction Page: 16 Chapter 1: Intake: Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Excretion of Nutrients Page: 17 The Gastrointestinal Tract Page: 17 Brief Overview of Digestive and Absorptive Processes Page: 17 The Small Intestine: Primary Site of Nutrient Absorption Page: 21 The Large Intestine Page: 22 Chapter 2: Intake: Energy Page: 28 Energy Requirements Page: 28 Components of Energy Expenditure Page: 28 Estimating Energy Requirements Page: 32 Calculating Food Energy Page: 35 Chapter 3: Intake: The Nutrients and Their Metabolism Page: 38 Macronutrients Page: 38 Micronutrients: Vitamins Page: 52 Micronutrients: Minerals Page: 66 Chapter 4: Intake: Analysis of the Diet Page: 93 Nutrition Imbalance Page: 93 Nutrition Screening Page: 94 Nutrition Assessment Page: 95 Chapter 5: Clinical: Nutritional Genomics Page: 100 The Human Genome Project Page: 100 Genotype And Nutrition Assessment Page: 101 Genetic Fundamentals Page: 101 Genetics And Nutrition Therapy Page: 106 Ethical, Legal, And Social Implications Page: 112 Chapter 6: Clinical: Inflammation, Physical, and Functional Assessments Page: 116 Nutrition and Inflammation Page: 116 Physical and Functional Assessments Page: 117 The Nutrition-Focused Physical Examination Page: 121 Functional Nutrition Assessment Page: 122 Chapter 7: Clinical: Water, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance Page: 126 Body Water Page: 126 Electrolytes Page: 128 Acid-Base Balance Page: 131 Acid-Base Disorders Page: 132 Chapter 8: Clinical: Biochemical Assessment Page: 134 Definitions And Usefulness Of Nutrition Laboratory Data Page: 134 Nutrition Interpretation Of Routine Medical Laboratory Tests Page: 135 Assessment Of Hydration Status Page: 137 Assessment Of Stress-Related Protein-Energy Malnutrition Page: 137 Laboratory Data To Assess For Nutritional Anemias Page: 139 Fat-Soluble Vitamins Page: 142 Water-Soluble Vitamins And Trace Minerals Page: 142 Chronic Disease Risk Assessment Page: 142 Chapter 9: Clinical: Food-Drug Interactions Page: 147 Pharmacologic Aspects Of Food-Drug Interactions Page: 147 Risk Factors For Food-Drug Interactions Page: 148 Effects Of Food On Drug Therapy Page: 149 Effects Of Drugs On Food And Nutrition Page: 152 Modification Of Drug Action By Food And Nutrients Page: 153 Effects Of Drugs On Nutrition Status Page: 155 Excipients And Food-Drug Interactions Page: 159 Medical Nutrition Therapy Page: 160 Chapter 10: Behavioral-Environmental: The Individual in the Community Page: 163 Nutrition Practice In The Community Page: 163 Needs Assessment For Community-Based Nutrition Services Page: 164 National Nutrition Surveys Page: 165 National Nutrition Guidelines And Goals Page: 166 Food Assistance And Nutrition Programs Page: 167 Foodborne Illness Page: 168 Food And Water Safety Page: 169 Disaster Planning Page: 171 Part 2: Nutrition Diagnosis and Intervention Page: 175 Introduction Page: 176 Chapter 11: Overview of Nutrition Diagnosis and Intervention Page: 177 The Nutrition Care Process Page: 177 Documentation in the Nutrition Care Record Page: 180 Influences On Nutrition And Health Care Page: 182 Nutrition Interventions Page: 183 Nutrition for the Terminally Ill or Hospice Patient Page: 185 Chapter 12: Food and Nutrient Delivery: Planning the Diet with Cultural Competency Page: 187 Determining Nutrient Needs Page: 187 Worldwide Guidelines Page: 187 Nutritional Status of Americans Page: 188 National Guidelines For Diet Planning Page: 189 Food and Nutrient Labeling Page: 190 Dietary Patterns and Counseling Tips Page: 193 Cultural Aspects of Dietary Planning Page: 194 Chapter 13: Food and Nutrient Delivery: Bioactive Substances and Integrative Care Page: 197 Integrative Medicine Page: 197 Dietary Supplementation Page: 198 Dietary Supplement Regulation Page: 200 Assessment Of Dietary Supplement Use Page: 201 Guidelines For Counseling Page: 203 Chapter 14: Food and Nutrient Delivery: Nutrition Support Methods Page: 206 Rationale And Criteria For Appropriate Nutrition Support Page: 206 Enteral Nutrition Page: 206 Parenteral Nutrition Page: 211 Refeeding Syndrome Page: 215 Transitional Feeding Page: 215 Nutrition Support In Long-Term And Home Care Page: 216 Ethical Issues Page: 217 Chapter 15: Education and Counseling: Behavioral Change Page: 219 Behavior Change Page: 219 Counseling Strategy: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Page: 221 Counseling Strategy: Motivational Interviewing Page: 222 Not-Ready-To-Change Counseling Sessions Page: 223 Unsure-About-Change Counseling Sessions Page: 225 Resistance Behaviors And Strategies To Modify Them Page: 226 Ready-To-Change Counseling Sessions Page: 227 Evaluation Of Effectiveness Page: 227 Part 3: Nutrition in the Life Cycle Page: 230 Introduction Page: 231 Chapter 16: Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation Page: 232 Preconception and Fertility Page: 232 Conception Page: 233 Pregnancy Page: 233 Lactation Page: 246 Chapter 17: Nutrition in Infancy Page: 255 Physiologic Development Page: 255 Nutrient Requirements Page: 256 Milk Page: 258 Food Page: 261 Feeding Page: 261 Chapter 18: Nutrition in Childhood Page: 266 Growth and Development Page: 266 Nutrient Requirements Page: 267 Providing an Adequate Diet Page: 269 Nutritional Concerns Page: 273 Preventing Chronic Disease Page: 273 Chapter 19: Nutrition in Adolescence Page: 277 Growth and Development Page: 277 Nutrient Requirements Page: 279 Food Habits and Eating Behaviors Page: 282 Nutrition Screening, Assessment, and Counseling Page: 284 Special Concerns Page: 285 Chapter 20: Nutrition in the Adult Years Page: 291 Setting the Stage: Nutrition In The Adult Years Page: 291 The Wellness Years Page: 292 Lifestyle and Health Risk Factors Page: 293 Health Disparities Page: 294 Interventions: Nutrition and Prevention Page: 295 Food Trends and Patterns Page: 295 Nutritional Supplementation Page: 296 Functional Foods Page: 296 Chapter 21: Nutrition in Aging Page: 301 The Older Population Page: 301 Gerontology + Geriatrics = The Spectrum Of Aging Page: 302 Nutrition In Health Promotion And Disease Prevention Page: 302 Theories On Aging Page: 303 Physiologic Changes Page: 303 Common Health Problems Page: 305 Quality Of Life Page: 306 Nutrition Screening And Assessment Page: 307 Nutrition Needs Page: 307 Medicare Benefits Page: 308 Nutrition Support Services Page: 308 Assisted Living And Skilled Care Facilities Page: 309 Part 4: Nutrition for Health and Fitness Page: 313 Introduction Page: 314 Chapter 22: Nutrition in Weight Management Page: 315 Body Weight Components Page: 315 Regulation of Body Weight Page: 317 Weight Imbalance: Overweight and Obesity Page: 317 Management of Obesity in Adults Page: 320 Common Problems in Obesity Treatment Page: 326 Weight Management in Children Page: 326 Weight Imbalance: Excessive Leanness or Unintentional Weight Loss Page: 327 Chapter 23: Nutrition in Eating Disorders Page: 332 Diagnostic Criteria Page: 332 Treatment Approach Page: 334 Clinical Characteristics and Medical Complications Page: 335 Psychological Management Page: 335 Nutrition Rehabilitation and Counseling Page: 336 Medical Nutrition Therapy and Counseling Page: 339 Chapter 24: Nutrition in Exercise and Sports Performance Page: 346 Energy Production Page: 346 Fuels for Contracting Muscles Page: 347 Nutritional Requirements of Exercise Page: 348 Weight Management Page: 349 Macronutrients Page: 349 Carbohydrate Page: 349 Protein Page: 351 Fat Page: 352 Vitamins and Minerals Page: 352 Fluid Page: 354 Other Considerations Page: 357 Ergogenic Aids Page: 357 Chapter 25: Nutrition and Bone Health Page: 362 Bone Structure and Bone Physiology Page: 362 Bone Mass Page: 364 Nutrition and Bone Page: 366 Osteopenia and Osteoporosis Page: 369 Chapter 26: Nutrition for Oral and Dental Health Page: 375 Nutrition For Tooth Development Page: 375 Dental Caries Page: 375 Early Childhood Caries Page: 380 Caries Prevention Page: 380 Tooth Loss and Dentures Page: 381 Other Oral Disorders Page: 381 Periodontal Disease Page: 381 Oral Manifestations of Systemic Disease Page: 382 Part 5: Medical Nutrition Therapy Page: 385 Introduction Page: 386 Chapter 27: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Adverse Reactions to Food: Food Allergies and Intolerances Page: 387 definitions Page: 387 Etiology Page: 388 Pathophysiology Page: 388 IgE-Mediated Reactions Page: 390 Non–IgE-Mediated or Mixed Antibody Reactions Page: 390 Cell-Mediated Reactions Page: 390 Food Intolerances Page: 390 Assessment Page: 392 Medical Nutrition Therapy Page: 393 Preventing Food Allergy Page: 393 Chapter 28: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders Page: 397 Assessment Parameters Page: 397 The Esophagus Page: 398 The Stomach Page: 401 Chapter 29: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Lower Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders Page: 410 Common Intestinal Problems Page: 410 Diseases of the Small Intestine Page: 417 Intestinal Brush-border Enzyme Deficiencies Page: 420 Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Page: 422 Nutritional Consequences of Intestinal Surgery Page: 428 Chapter 30: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disorders Page: 437 Physiology and Functions of the Liver Page: 437 Diseases of the Liver Page: 438 Treatment of Cirrhosis and Its Complications Page: 442 Liver Resection and Transplantation Page: 447 Physiology and Functions of the Gallbladder Page: 447 Diseases of the Gallbladder Page: 447 Physiology and Functions of the Exocrine Pancreas Page: 449 Diseases of the Exocrine Pancreas Page: 449 Chapter 31: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia of Nondiabetic Origin Page: 453 Incidence and Prevalence Page: 453 Categories of Glucose Intolerance Page: 453 Screening and Diagnostic Criteria Page: 456 Management of Prediabetes Page: 456 Management of Diabetes Page: 457 Implementing the Nutrition Care Process Page: 466 Acute Complications Page: 472 Long-Term Complications Page: 472 Hypoglycemia of Nondiabetic Origin Page: 474 Chapter 32: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Thyroid and Related Disorders Page: 478 Thyroid Physiology Page: 478 Assessment in Thyroid Disorders Page: 479 Hypothyroidism Page: 479 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Page: 482 Hyperthyroidism Page: 483 Managing Imbalances Of The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis Page: 484 Other Endocrine System Disorders Page: 485 Chapter 33: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Anemia Page: 487 Iron-Related Blood Disorders Page: 487 Iron Overload Page: 488 Megaloblastic Anemias Page: 489 Other Nutritional Anemias Page: 492 Nonnutritional Anemias Page: 493 Chapter 34: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease Page: 496 Atherosclerosis and Coronary Heart Disease Page: 496 Genetic Hyperlipidemias Page: 498 Hypertension Page: 506 Heart Failure Page: 513 Cardiac Transplantation Page: 518 Chapter 35: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Pulmonary Disease Page: 523 The Pulmonary System Page: 523 Aspiration Page: 524 Asthma Page: 524 Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Page: 525 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Page: 527 Cystic Fibrosis Page: 529 Lung Cancer Page: 531 Pneumonia Page: 531 Respiratory Failure Page: 532 Tuberculosis Page: 533 Chapter 36: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Renal Disorders Page: 536 Physiology and Function of the Kidneys Page: 536 Renal Diseases Page: 537 Acute Kidney Injury (Acute Renal Failure) Page: 542 Chronic Kidney Disease Page: 544 Diseases of the Tubules and Interstitium Page: 545 Glomerular Diseases Page: 545 End-Stage Renal Disease Page: 545 Chapter 37: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery Page: 556 Etiology Page: 556 Pathophysiology Page: 556 Nutrition and Carcinogenesis Page: 557 Nutrients for Cancer Prevention Page: 560 Medical Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer Page: 562 Medical Treatment Page: 563 Medical Nutrition Therapy Page: 563 Nutritional Impact of Cancer Treatments Page: 567 Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Page: 571 Pediatric Cancer Page: 572 Nutrition Recommendations for Cancer Survivors Page: 572 Complementary and Integrative Oncology Page: 573 Chapter 38: Medical Nutrition Therapy for HIV and AIDS Page: 576 Epidemiology and Trends Page: 576 Pathophysiology and Classification Page: 576 Medical Management Page: 577 Medical Nutrition Therapy Page: 579 Special Considerations Page: 583 Hiv in Women Page: 583 Hiv in Children Page: 584 Complementary and Alternative Therapies Page: 584 Chapter 39: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Metabolic Stress: Sepsis, Trauma, Burns, and Surgery Page: 587 Metabolic Response to Stress Page: 587 Starvation Versus Stress Page: 588 Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome Page: 588 Malnutrition: The Etiology-Based Definition Page: 589 Trauma and the Open Abdomen Page: 592 Major Burns Page: 592 Surgery Page: 594 Chapter 40: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Rheumatic Disease Page: 598 Pathophysiology and Inflammation Page: 598 Medical Diagnosis and Treatment Page: 599 Unconfirmed Therapies Page: 600 Osteoarthritis Page: 600 Rheumatoid Arthritis Page: 602 Sjögren’s Syndrome Page: 605 Temporomandibular Disorders Page: 606 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome And Fibromyalgia Page: 606 Gout Page: 607 Scleroderma Page: 609 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Page: 609 Chapter 41: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Neurologic Disorders Page: 613 The Central Nervous System Page: 614 Issues Complicating Nutrition Therapy Page: 614 Dysphagia Page: 615 Neurologic Diseases of Nutritional Origin Page: 618 Neurologic Disorders from Trauma Page: 618 Head Trauma or Neurotrauma Page: 619 Spine Trauma and Spinal Cord Injury Page: 619 Neurologic Diseases Page: 620 Chapter 42: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Psychiatric Conditions Page: 631 Classification Page: 631 Nutrition for the Brain and Nervous System Page: 632 Weight Management Page: 635 Addiction and Substance Abuse Recovery Page: 635 Nutrition Interventions Page: 636 Part 6: Pediatric Specialties Page: 641 Introduction Page: 642 Chapter 43: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Low-Birth-Weight Infants Page: 643 Infant Mortality and Statistics Page: 643 Physiologic Development Page: 643 Nutrition Requirements: Parenteral Feeding Page: 644 Transition from Parenteral to Enteral Feeding Page: 648 Nutrition Requirements: Enteral Feeding Page: 648 Feeding Methods Page: 652 Selection of Enteral Feeding Page: 652 Nutrition Assessment and Growth Page: 653 Discharge Care Page: 655 Neurodevelopmental Outcome Page: 655 Chapter 44: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Genetic Metabolic Disorders Page: 658 Newborn Screening Page: 658 Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Page: 659 Disorders of Organic Acid Metabolism Page: 663 Disorders of Urea Cycle Metabolism Page: 664 Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Page: 665 Disorders of Fatty Acid Oxidation Page: 666 Role of the Nutritionist in Genetic Metabolic Disorders Page: 667 Chapter 45: Medical Nutrition Therapy for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Page: 670 Medical Nutrition Therapy Page: 670 Chromosomal Aberrations Page: 672 Neurologic Disorders Page: 676 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Page: 681 Controversial Nutrition Therapy Page: 681 Community Resources Page: 681 Appendixes Page: 684 APPENDIX 1: Medical Abbreviations Page: 685 APPENDIX 2: Unit Abbreviations Page: 686 APPENDIX 3: Milliequivalents and Milligrams of Electrolytes Page: 687 APPENDIX 4: Equivalents, Conversions, and Portion (Scoop) Sizes Page: 688 APPENDIX 5: Focus on Nutrition Care Process: Nutrition Assessment Page: 689 APPENDIX 6: Focus on Nutrition Care Process: Nutrition Diagnosis Page: 690 APPENDIX 7: Focus on Nutrition Care Process: Nutrition Intervention Page: 691 APPENDIX 8: Focus on Nutrition Care Process: Nutrition Monitoring and Evaluation Page: 692 APPENDIX 9: Birth to 24 Months: Boys Length-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles Page: 693 APPENDIX 10: Birth to 24 Months: Boys Head Circumference-for-Age and Weight-for-Length Percentiles Page: 694 APPENDIX 11: 2 to 20 Years: Boys Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles Page: 695 APPENDIX 12: Body Mass Index-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years Page: 696 APPENDIX 13: Birth to 24 Months: Girls Length-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles Page: 697 APPENDIX 14: Birth to 24 Months: Girls Head Circumference-for-Age and Weight-for-Length Percentiles Page: 698 APPENDIX 15: 2 to 20 Years: Girls Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles Page: 699 APPENDIX 16: Body Mass Index-for-Age Percentiles: Girls, 2 to 20 Years Page: 700 APPENDIX 17: Tanner Stages of Adolescent Development for Girls Page: 701 APPENDIX 18: Tanner Stages of Adolescent Development for Boys Page: 702 APPENDIX 19: Direct Methods for Measuring Height and Weight Page: 703 APPENDIX 20: Indirect Methods for Measuring Height Page: 704 APPENDIX 21: Determination of Frame Size Page: 705 APPENDIX 22: Adjustment of Desirable Body Weight for Amputees Page: 706 APPENDIX 23: Body Mass Index Table Page: 707 APPENDIX 24: Percentage of Body Fat Based on Four Skinfold Measurements Page: 708 APPENDIX 25: Arm Anthropometry for Children Page: 709 APPENDIX 26: Arm Anthropometry for Adults Page: 710 APPENDIX 27: Recommendations for Clinical Application of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Page: 711 APPENDIX 28: Physical Activity and Calories Expended per Hour Page: 712 APPENDIX 29: Nutrition-Focused Physical Assessment Page: 713 APPENDIX 30: Laboratory Values for Nutritional Assessment and Monitoring Page: 714 APPENDIX 31: Nutritional Implications of Selected Drugs Page: 719 APPENDIX 32: Enteral Formulas and Their Indications for Use Page: 720 APPENDIX 33: DASH Diet Page: 721 APPENDIX 34: Exchange Lists for Meal Planning Page: 722 APPENDIX 35: National Dysphagia Diets Page: 726 APPENDIX 36: Renal Diet for Dialysis Page: 727 APPENDIX 37: Sodium-Restricted Diets Page: 730 APPENDIX 38: Nutritional Facts on Alcoholic Beverages Page: 731 APPENDIX 39: Nutritional Facts on Caffeine-Containing Products Page: 732 APPENDIX 40: Nutritional Facts on Essential (Omega) Fatty Acids Page: 733 APPENDIX 41: Nutritional Facts on a High-Fiber Diet Page: 734 APPENDIX 42: Nutritional Facts on Fluid and Hydration Page: 735 APPENDIX 43: Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Selected Foods* Page: 736 APPENDIX 44: Nutritional Facts on a High-Protein Diet Page: 737 APPENDIX 45: Nutritional Facts on Vegetarian Eating Page: 738 APPENDIX 46: Nutritional Facts on Folic Acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 Page: 739 APPENDIX 47: Nutritional Facts on Vitamin A and Carotenoids Page: 740 APPENDIX 48: Nutritional Facts on Vitamin C Page: 741 APPENDIX 49: Nutritional Facts on Vitamin E Page: 742 APPENDIX 50: Nutritional Facts on Vitamin K Page: 743 APPENDIX 51: Nutritional Facts on Calcium and Vitamin D Page: 744 APPENDIX 52: Nutritional Facts on Chromium Page: 745 APPENDIX 53: Nutritional Facts on Iodine Page: 746 APPENDIX 54: Nutritional Facts on Iron Page: 747 APPENDIX 55: Nutritional Facts on Magnesium Page: 748 APPENDIX 56: Nutritional Facts on Potassium Page: 749 APPENDIX 57: Nutritional Facts on Selenium Page: 750 APPENDIX 58: Nutritional Facts on Zinc Page: 751 Index Page: 752 endsheets Page: 847


The most respected nutrition text for more than 50 years, Krause's Food and the Nutrition Care Process delivers comprehensive and up-to-date information from respected educators and practitioners in the field. The latest recommendations include the new MyPlate guide, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, new and expanded chapters, and a large variety of tables, boxes, and pathophysiology algorithms, all providing need-to-know information with ease. New co-editor Janice L. Raymond joins L. Kathleen Mahan and Sylvia Escott-Stump and nearly 50 leading educators, researchers, and practitioners in writing a nutrition text that's ideal for use in class or everyday practice.

    • Expert contributors include nearly 50 nationally recognized writers, researchers, and practitioners, each writing on their area of specialization.
    • Clear, logical organization details each step of complete nutritional care from assessment to therapy.
    • UNIQUE! Pathophysiology algorithms clarify the illness process and to ensure more effective care.
    • New Directions boxes reflect the latest research in emerging areas in nutrition therapy.
    • Focus On boxes provide additional detail on key chapter concepts.
    • Clinical Insight boxes and Clinical Scenarios with detailed Sample Nutrition Diagnosis statements help ensure the most accurate and effective interventions in practice.
    • Key terms listed at the beginning of each chapter and bolded within the text provide quick access to important nutrition terminology.
    • More than 1,000 self-assessment questions on a companion Evolve website reinforce key textbook content.
    • New recommendations reflect a comprehensive approach to diet and nutrition that incorporates the USDA's MyPlate guide, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, and the Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide recommendations.
    • Reorganized table of contents reinforces the Nutrition Care Process structure endorsed by the American Dietetic Association (ADA).
    • MNT for Thyroid Disorders chapter details important nutrition considerations for managing thyroid disorders.
    • New calcium and vitamin D Dietary Recommended Intakes (DRIs) improve monitoring of nutrient intake.
    • Expanded Nutrition in Aging chapter includes assessment and nutritional care guidelines for the growing elderly patient population.
    • Growth grids for children detail proper patient nutrition during infancy and early childhood.
    • Extensively revised MNT for Food Allergies chapter highlights the importance of food allergy management in clinical nutrition therapy.
    • Updated appendices enhance assessment accuracy with the latest laboratory findings and normal values.
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