ebook img

Human Biology PDF

293 Pages·2013·38.93 MB·English
by  
Save to my drive
Quick download
Download

Preview Human Biology

Human Biology SayThankstotheAuthors Clickhttp://www.ck12.org/saythanks (Nosigninrequired) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactivecontent,visitwww.ck12.org CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the FlexBook®, CK-12 intends to pioneerthegenerationanddistributionofhigh-qualityeducational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptiveenvironmentforlearning,poweredthroughtheFlexBook Platform®. Copyright©2012CK-12Foundation,www.ck12.org The names “CK-12” and “CK12” and associated logos and the terms “FlexBook®” and “FlexBook Platform®” (collectively “CK-12 Marks”) are trademarks and service marks of CK-12 Foundation and are protected by federal, state, and international laws. Any form of reproduction of this book in any format or medium, in whole or in sections must include the referral attribution link http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (placed in a visible location) in additiontothefollowingterms. Except as otherwise noted, all CK-12 Content (including CK-12 Curriculum Material) is made available to Users in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution/Non- Commercial/Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/), as amended and updated by Creative Commons from time to time (the “CC License”),whichisincorporatedhereinbythisreference. Completetermscanbefoundathttp://www.ck12.org/terms. Printed: January16,2013 www.ck12.org Chapter1. HumanBiology C 1 HAPTER Human Biology CHAPTER OUTLINE 1.1 OrganizationoftheHumanBody 1.2 Homeostasis 1.3 Skin 1.4 NailsandHair 1.5 KeepingSkinHealthy 1.6 HumanSkeletalSystem 1.7 SkeletalSystemJoints 1.8 KeepingBonesandJointsHealthy 1.9 Smooth,Skeletal,andCardiacMuscles 1.10 Muscles,Bones,andMovement 1.11 MusclesandExercise 1.12 FoodandNutrients 1.13 TypesofNutrients 1.14 VitaminsandMinerals 1.15 ChoosingHealthyFoods 1.16 HumanDigestiveSystem 1.17 EnzymesintheDigestiveSystem 1.18 DigestiveSystemOrgans 1.19 BacteriaintheDigestiveSystem 1.20 HealthoftheDigestiveSystem 1.21 CardiovascularSystem 1.22 CirculationandtheLymphaticSystem 1.23 Heart 1.24 BloodVessels 1.25 ComponentsofBlood 1.26 BloodTypes 1.27 BloodDiseases 1.28 BloodPressure 1.29 CardiovascularDiseases 1.30 CardiovascularSystemHealth 1.31 Respiration 1.32 RespiratorySystemOrgans 1.33 ProcessesofBreathing 1 www.ck12.org 1.34 RespiratorySystemDiseases 1.35 RespiratorySystemHealth 1.36 Excretion 1.37 UrinarySystem 1.38 Kidneys 1.39 ExcretorySystemProblems 1.40 NervousSystem 1.41 NerveCellsandNerveImpulses 1.42 CentralNervousSystem 1.43 PeripheralNervousSystem 1.44 HumanVision 1.45 HowtheEyeWorks 1.46 VisionCorrection 1.47 HearingandBalance 1.48 Touch 1.49 TasteandSmell 1.50 DiseasesoftheNervousSystem 1.51 InjuriesoftheNervousSystem 1.52 KeepingtheNervousSystemHealthy 1.53 Pathogens 1.54 HIVandAIDS 1.55 PreventingInfectiousDiseases 1.56 Cancer 1.57 Diabetes 1.58 AutoimmuneDiseases 1.59 PreventingNoninfectiousDiseases 1.60 BarrierstoPathogens 1.61 InflammatoryResponse 1.62 LymphaticSystem 1.63 BandTCellResponse 1.64 Immunity 1.65 MaleReproductiveSystem 1.66 MaleReproductiveStructures 1.67 HumanSperm 1.68 FemaleReproductiveSystem 1.69 FemaleReproductiveStructures 1.70 HumanEggCells 2 www.ck12.org Chapter1. HumanBiology 1.71 MenstrualCycle 1.72 Fertilization 1.73 PregnancyandChildbirth 1.74 InfancyandChildhood 1.75 PubertyandAdolescence 1.76 AdulthoodandAging 1.77 SexuallyTransmittedInfections 1.78 Non-InfectiousReproductiveSystemDisorders 1.79 ReproductiveSystemHealth 1.80 References Introduction Human Biology provides an overview of the physiology of humans, from the skin inward. In addition to the skin, theskeletal,muscular,nervous,circulatory,respiratory,digestive,excretory,immune,andreproductivesystemsare described. 3 1.1. OrganizationoftheHumanBody www.ck12.org 1.1 Organization of the Human Body • Listthelevelsoforganizationinthehumanbody. • Identifythefourtypesoftissuesthatmakeupthebody. Docellsworktogether? Cells, like these nerve cells, do not work in isolation. To send orders from your brain to your legs, for example, signalspassthroughmanynervecells. Thesecellsworktogethertoperformasimilarfunction. Justasmusclecells worktogether,bonecellsandmanyothercellsdoaswell. Agroupofsimilarcellsthatworktogetherisknownasa tissue. 4 www.ck12.org Chapter1. HumanBiology OrganizationofYourBody: Cells,Tissues,Organs Cells are grouped together to carry out specific functions. A group of cells that work together form a tissue. Your body has four main types of tissues, as do the bodies of other animals. These tissues make up all structures and contentsofyourbody. Anexampleofeachtissuetypeispicturedbelow(Figure1.1). FIGURE1.1 Yourbodyhasfourmaintypesoftissue: nervoustissue,epithelialtissue,connectivetissue,andmuscletissue. Theyarefoundthroughoutyourbody. 1. Epithelial tissue is made up of layers of tightly packed cells that line the surfaces of the body. Examples of epithelialtissueincludetheskin,theliningofthemouthandnose,andtheliningofthedigestivesystem. 2. Connectivetissueismadeupofmanydifferenttypesofcellsthatareallinvolvedinsupportingandbinding other tissues of the body. Examples include tendon, cartilage, and bone. Blood is also classified as a specializedconnectivetissue. 3. Muscletissueismadeupofbandsofcellsthatcontractandallowmovement. 4. Nervous tissue is made up of nerve cells that sense stimuli and transmit signals. Nervous tissue is found in nerves,thespinalcord,andthebrain. GroupsofTissuesFormOrgans A single tissue alone cannot do all the jobs that are needed to keep you alive and healthy. Two or more tissues working together can do a lot more. An organ is a structure made of two or more tissues that work together. The heart(Figure1.2)ismadeupofthefourtypesoftissues. 5 1.1. OrganizationoftheHumanBody www.ck12.org FIGURE1.2 The four different tissue types work to- getherintheheartastheydointheother organs. GroupsofOrgansFormOrganSystems Yourheartpumpsbloodaroundyourbody. Buthowdoesyourheartgetbloodtoandfromeverycellinyourbody? Yourheartisconnectedtobloodvesselssuchasveinsandarteries. Organsthatworktogetherformanorgansystem. Together,yourheart,blood,andbloodvesselsformyourcardiovascularsystem. Whatotherorgansystemscanyouthinkof? OrganSystemsWorkTogether Your body’s 12 organ systems are shown below (Table 1.1). Your organ systems do not work alone in your body. Theymustallbeabletoworktogether. Forexample,oneofthemostimportantfunctionsoforgansystemsistoprovidecellswithoxygenandnutrientsand to remove toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide. A number of organ systems, including the cardiovascular andrespiratorysystems,allworktogethertodothis. TABLE 1.1: MajorOrganSystemsoftheHumanBody OrganSystem MajorTissuesandOrgans Function Cardiovascular Heart;bloodvessels;blood Transports oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to the body cells. Moves wastes and carbon dioxide away fromcells. Lymphatic Lymphnodes;lymphvessels Defend against infection and dis- ease, moves lymph between tissues andthebloodstream. Digestive Esophagus; stomach; small intes- Digestsfoodsandabsorbsnutrients, tine;largeintestine minerals,vitamins,andwater. Endocrine Pituitary gland, hypothalamus; Produces hormones that communi- adrenalglands;ovaries;testes catebetweencells. 6 www.ck12.org Chapter1. HumanBiology TABLE 1.1: (continued) OrganSystem MajorTissuesandOrgans Function Integumentary Skin,hair,nails Providesprotectionfrominjuryand waterloss,physicaldefenseagainst infection by microorganisms, and temperaturecontrol. Muscular Cardiac (heart) muscle; skeletal Involvedinmovementandheatpro- muscle;smoothmuscle;tendons duction. Nervous Brain,spinalcord;nerves Collects, transfers, and processes information. Reproductive Female: uterus; vagina; fallopian Produces gametes (sex cells) and tubes; ovaries Male: penis; testes; sexhormones. seminalvesicles Respiratory Trachea,larynx,pharynx,lungs Brings air to sites where gas ex- changecanoccurbetweentheblood and cells (around body) or blood andair(lungs). Skeletal Bones,cartilage;ligaments Supportsandprotectssofttissuesof body; produces blood cells; stores minerals. Urinary Kidneys;urinarybladder Removes extra water, salts, and waste products from blood and body; controls pH; controls water andsaltbalance. Immune Bone marrow; spleen; white blood Defendsagainstdiseases. cells Vocabulary • cardiovascularsystem: Organsystemmadeupoftheheart,blood,andbloodvessels. • cells: Basicunitofstructureandfunctionofalivingorganism;thebasicunitoflife. • connectivetissue: Groupofcellsthatareallinvolvedinsupportingandbindingothertissuesofthebody;i.e. tendon,cartilage,bone,andblood. • epithelialtissue: Layersoftightlypackedcellsthatlinethesurfacesofthebody. • muscletissue: Bandsofcellsthatcontractandallowmovement. • nervoustissue: Groupofnervecellsthatsensestimuliandtransmitsignals; foundinbrain, spinalcord, and nerves. • organ: Structuremadeoftwoormoretissuesthatworktogether. • organsystem: Organsthatworktogethertoserveacommonpurpose. • tissue: Groupofsimilarcellsworkingtogether. Summary • Thelevelsoforganizationinthehumanbodyinclude: cells,tissues,organs,andorgansystems. • Therearefourtissuetypesinthebody: epithelialtissue,connectivetissue,muscletissue,andnervoustissue. Practice Usetheresourcesbelowtoanswerthefollowingquestions. 7 1.1. OrganizationoftheHumanBody www.ck12.org • HumanBodyPlanathttp://vimeo.com/37349968(2:28) MEDIA Clickimagetotheleftformorecontent. 1. Whatkindofsymmetrydoesthehumanbodyplanshow? Explainfullywhatthismeans. 2. Howdoesthissymmetryextendtooursenses? 3. Howmuchofourbodyismadeofmuscle? Whatdoesthismuscleallowustodo? 4. Howareoxygenandnutrientsdeliveredtothecellsofthebody? Goheretoseetheplacementofsomeorgansandbodyparts. Seehowfastyoucanassemblethesystems. • AllSystemsGoathttp://sciencenetlinks.com/interactives/systems.html Review 1. Whatarethefourlevelsoforganizationinanorganism? 2. Listthefourtypesoftissuesthatmakeupthehumanbody. 8

See more

Similar Human Biology