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Handbook of Psychology, Volume 6: Developmental Psychology PDF

691 Pages·2005·6.83 MB·English
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HANDBOOK of PSYCHOLOGY VOLUME 6 DEVELOPMENTALPSYCHOLOGY Richard M. Lerner M. Ann Easterbrooks Jayanthi Mistry Volume Editors Irving B. Weiner Editor-in-Chief John Wiley & Sons, Inc. HANDBOOK of PSYCHOLOGY HANDBOOK of PSYCHOLOGY VOLUME 6 DEVELOPMENTALPSYCHOLOGY Richard M. Lerner M. Ann Easterbrooks Jayanthi Mistry Volume Editors Irving B. Weiner Editor-in-Chief John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This book is printed on acid-free paper.➇ Copyright ©2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: [email protected] Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If legal, accounting, medical, psychological or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. In all instances where John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is aware of a claim, the product names appear in initial capital or all capital letters. Readers, however, should contact the appropriate companies for more complete information regarding trademarks and registration. For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Handbook of psychology / Irving B. Weiner, editor-in-chief. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Contents: v. 1. History of psychology / edited by Donald K. Freedheim — v. 2. Research methods in psychology / edited by John A. Schinka, Wayne F. Velicer — v. 3. Biological psychology / edited by Michela Gallagher, Randy J. Nelson — v. 4. Experimental psychology / edited by Alice F. Healy, Robert W. Proctor — v. 5. Personality and social psychology / edited by Theodore Millon, Melvin J. Lerner — v. 6. Developmental psychology / edited by Richard M. Lerner, M. Ann Easterbrooks, Jayanthi Mistry — v. 7. Educational psychology / edited by William M. Reynolds, Gloria E. Miller — v. 8. Clinical psychology / edited by George Stricker, Thomas A. Widiger — v. 9. Health psychology / edited by Arthur M. Nezu, Christine Maguth Nezu, Pamela A. Geller — v. 10. Assessment psychology / edited by John R. Graham, Jack A. Naglieri — v. 11. Forensic psychology / edited by Alan M. Goldstein — v. 12. Industrial and organizational psychology / edited by Walter C. Borman, Daniel R. Ilgen, Richard J. Klimoski. ISBN 0-471-17669-9 (set) — ISBN 0-471-38320-1 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 1) — ISBN 0-471-38513-1 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 2) — ISBN 0-471-38403-8 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 3) — ISBN 0-471-39262-6 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 4) — ISBN 0-471-38404-6 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 5) — ISBN 0-471-38405-4 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 6) — ISBN 0-471-38406-2 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 7) — ISBN 0-471-39263-4 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 8) — ISBN 0-471-38514-X (cloth : alk. paper : v. 9) — ISBN 0-471-38407-0 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 10) — ISBN 0-471-38321-X (cloth : alk. paper : v. 11) — ISBN 0-471-38408-9 (cloth : alk. paper : v. 12) 1. Psychology. I. Weiner, Irving B. BF121.H1955 2003 150—dc21 2002066380 Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Editorial Board Volume 1 Volume 5 Volume 9 History of Psychology Personality and Social Psychology Health Psychology Donald K. Freedheim, PhD Theodore Millon, PhD Arthur M. Nezu, PhD Case Western Reserve University Institute for Advanced Studies in Christine Maguth Nezu, PhD Cleveland, Ohio Personology and Psychopathology Pamela A. Geller, PhD Coral Gables, Florida Drexel University Melvin J. Lerner, PhD Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Volume 2 Florida Atlantic University Research Methods in Psychology Boca Raton, Florida Volume 10 Assessment Psychology John A. Schinka, PhD University of South Florida Volume 6 John R. Graham, PhD Tampa, Florida Developmental Psychology Kent State University Kent, Ohio Wayne F. Velicer, PhD Richard M. Lerner, PhD University of Rhode Island M. Ann Easterbrooks, PhD Jack A. Naglieri, PhD Kingston, Rhode Island Jayanthi Mistry, PhD George Mason University Fairfax, Virginia Tufts University Medford, Massachusetts Volume 11 Volume 3 Forensic Psychology Biological Psychology Volume 7 Educational Psychology Alan M. Goldstein, PhD Michela Gallagher, PhD John Jay College of Criminal Johns Hopkins University William M. Reynolds, PhD Justice–CUNY Baltimore, Maryland Humboldt State University New York, New York Arcata, California Randy J. Nelson, PhD Ohio State University Gloria E. Miller, PhD Volume 12 Columbus, Ohio University of Denver Industrial and Organizational Psychology Denver, Colorado Walter C. Borman, PhD Volume 4 Volume 8 University of South Florida Experimental Psychology Clinical Psychology Tampa, Florida Alice F. Healy, PhD George Stricker, PhD Daniel R. Ilgen, PhD University of Colorado Adelphi University Michigan State University Boulder, Colorado Garden City, New York East Lansing, Michigan Robert W. Proctor, PhD Thomas A. Widiger, PhD Richard J. Klimoski, PhD Purdue University University of Kentucky George Mason University West Lafayette, Indiana Lexington, Kentucky Fairfax, Virginia v Handbook of Psychology Preface Psychologyatthebeginningofthetwenty-firstcenturyhas Asecond unifying thread in psychology is a commitment becomeahighlydiversefieldofscientificstudyandapplied to the development and utilization of research methods technology.Psychologistscommonlyregardtheirdiscipline suitable for collecting and analyzing behavioral data. With asthescienceofbehavior,andtheAmericanPsychological attention both to specific procedures and their application Association has formally designated 2000 to 2010 as the in particular settings, Volume 2 addresses research methods “DecadeofBehavior.”Thepursuitsofbehavioralscientists in psychology. rangefromthenaturalsciencestothesocialsciencesandem- Volumes 3 through 7 of the Handbook present the sub- braceawidevarietyofobjectsofinvestigation.Somepsy- stantive content of psychological knowledge in five broad chologistshavemoreincommonwithbiologiststhanwith areas of study: biological psychology (Volume 3), experi- mostotherpsychologists,andsomehavemoreincommon mental psychology (Volume 4), personality and social psy- withsociologiststhanwithmostoftheirpsychologicalcol- chology (Volume 5), developmental psychology (Volume 6), leagues.Somepsychologistsareinterestedprimarilyinthebe- and educational psychology (Volume 7). Volumes 8 through haviorofanimals,someinthebehaviorofpeople,andothers 12 address the application of psychological knowledge in inthebehavioroforganizations.Theseandotherdimensions five broad areas of professional practice: clinical psychology ofdifferenceamongpsychologicalscientistsarematchedby (Volume 8), health psychology (Volume 9), assessment psy- equalifnotgreaterheterogeneityamongpsychologicalpracti- chology (Volume 10), forensic psychology (Volume 11), and tioners,whocurrentlyapplyavastarrayofmethodsinmany industrial and organizational psychology (Volume 12). Each differentsettingstoachievehighlyvariedpurposes. of these volumes reviews what is currently known in these Psychology has been rich in comprehensive encyclope- areas of study and application and identifies pertinent sources dias and in handbooks devoted to specific topics in the field. of information in the literature. Each discusses unresolved is- However, there has not previously been any single handbook sues and unanswered questions and proposes future direc- designed to cover the broad scope of psychological science tions in conceptualization, research, and practice. Each of the and practice. The present 12-volume Handbook of Psychol- volumes also reflects the investment of scientific psycholo- ogy was conceived to occupy this place in the literature. gists in practical applications of their findings and the atten- Leading national and international scholars and practitioners tion of applied psychologists to the scientific basis of their have collaborated to produce 297 authoritative and detailed methods. chapters covering all fundamental facets of the discipline, The Handbook of Psychology was prepared for the pur- and the Handbookhas been organized to capture the breadth pose of educating and informing readers about the present and diversity of psychology and to encompass interests and state of psychological knowledge and about anticipated ad- concerns shared by psychologists in all branches of the field. vances in behavioral science research and practice. With this Two unifying threads run through the science of behavior. purpose in mind, the individual Handbook volumes address The first is a common history rooted in conceptual and em- the needs and interests of three groups. First, for graduate stu- pirical approaches to understanding the nature of behavior. dents in behavioral science, the volumes provide advanced The specific histories of all specialty areas in psychology instruction in the basic concepts and methods that define the trace their origins to the formulations of the classical philoso- fields they cover, together with a review of current knowl- phers and the methodology of the early experimentalists, and edge, core literature, and likely future developments. Second, appreciation for the historical evolution of psychology in all in addition to serving as graduate textbooks, the volumes of its variations transcends individual identities as being one offer professional psychologists an opportunity to read and kind of psychologist or another. Accordingly, Volume 1 in contemplate the views of distinguished colleagues concern- the Handbook is devoted to the history of psychology as ing the central thrusts of research and leading edges of prac- it emerged in many areas of scientific study and applied tice in their respective fields. Third, for psychologists seeking technology. to become conversant with fields outside their own specialty vii

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