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Preview Food Security and Nutrition

Food Security and Nutrition Page: iii Copyright Page Page: iv Contents Page: v List of contributors Page: ix 1 Leveraging nutrition for food security: the integration of nutrition in the four pillars of food s Page: 1 1.1 Introduction Page: 1 1.2 Food security and nutrition: definitions, indicators, and prevalence Page: 2 1.2.1 Food security: definition, indicators, and prevalence Page: 2 1.2.1.1 Definition Page: 2 1.2.1.2 Indicators of food security Page: 2 1.2.1.3 Prevalence of food security Page: 5 1.2.2 Malnutrition: definition, indicators, and prevalence Page: 6 1.2.2.1 Definition Page: 6 1.2.2.2 Indicators and prevalence of malnutrition Page: 7 1.2.3 The burden of global food insecurity and malnutrition Page: 10 1.3 Food insecurity and malnutrition coexist: correlations and causalities Page: 11 1.3.1 The conceptual link between food security and nutrition Page: 11 1.3.2 Food insecurity correlates with undernutrition Page: 12 1.3.3 Food insecurity correlates with overweight and obesity Page: 13 1.3.4 Food insecurity correlates with multiple forms of malnutrition Page: 15 1.4 Integrating nutrition in all pillars of food security Page: 15 1.4.1 Availability: nutrition and agri-food production Page: 15 1.4.2 Access: nutritional considerations in access to food Page: 21 1.4.3 Utilization: nutritional adequacy and safety of food Page: 23 1.4.4 Stability: conflict, environmental crises, and economic shocks Page: 25 1.4.4.1 Conflict Page: 25 1.4.4.2 Environmental crises Page: 25 1.4.4.3 Economic shocks Page: 26 1.5 Conclusion Page: 27 References Page: 27 2 Transition toward sustainable food systems: a holistic pathway toward sustainable development Page: 33 2.1 Introduction Page: 33 2.2 Sustainable food systems Page: 34 2.3 Transforming food systems is the key to ending poverty, hunger, and malnutrition: people Page: 36 2.3.1 Toward optimal health and nutrition Page: 36 2.3.2 A path toward a poverty-free society Page: 37 2.3.3 Closing the gender gap in agriculture Page: 39 2.4 Safeguarding our planet for future generations: planet Page: 41 2.4.1 Planet and planetary boundaries Page: 41 2.4.2 Carbon footprint Page: 42 2.4.3 Water footprint Page: 44 2.4.4 Ecological footprint Page: 46 2.5 Prosperity and peace Page: 47 2.5.1 Commitment toward inclusivity and well-being Page: 47 2.5.2 Shared prosperity models Page: 48 2.6 Partnership: breaking the silos of the people, planet, peace, prosperity, and partnership Page: 51 2.6.1 The role of digitization Page: 51 2.7 Concluding remarks Page: 52 References Page: 53 3 Food security and nutrition in agro-food sustainability transitions Page: 57 3.1 Introduction Page: 57 3.2 Landscape of research on sustainability transitions in the agro-food system Page: 60 3.2.1 Topical focus of and main themes in research on sustainability transitions in the agro-food sy Page: 61 3.2.2 Research on sustainability transitions in agro-food systems: conceptual challenges Page: 64 3.3 Transition pathways toward sustainable agro-food systems ensuring food and nutrition security Page: 66 3.3.1 Perspectives to achieve food system sustainability and food security in the sustainability tra Page: 70 3.4 Food security and nutrition in the scholarly literature on sustainability transitions in agro-fo Page: 71 3.5 Conclusions Page: 73 References Page: 74 4 Agri-food markets, trade, and food and nutrition security Page: 87 4.1 Introduction Page: 87 4.2 Agri-food markets and trade Page: 88 4.3 Agri-food markets and food insecurity Page: 90 4.4 Trade and nutrition Page: 94 4.5 Policies for fostering the contribution of agri-food markets and trade to food and nutrition sec Page: 98 4.6 Conclusions Page: 102 References Page: 102 5 The linkage between agricultural input subsidies, productivity, food security, and nutrition Page: 107 5.1 Background of the study Page: 107 5.2 The objective of the study Page: 109 5.3 Justification of the chapter Page: 109 5.4 Material and methods Page: 110 5.5 Results and discussion Page: 111 5.5.1 Agricultural input subsidies as a driver of increased productivity and income Page: 111 5.5.2 Agricultural inputs subsidies as a driver of food security Page: 113 5.5.3 Linking agricultural input subsidies to nutrition Page: 115 5.5.4 Case studies of countries using agricultural input subsidies to boost food security in sub-Sah Page: 116 5.5.5 Drawbacks in agricultural input subsidy Page: 118 5.5.6 Roles of the private sector in agricultural inputs subsidy Page: 119 5.6 Conclusion and Recommendations Page: 121 5.7 Additional Research Page: 121 References Page: 121 6 Diversifying crops for food and nutrition security: A case of vegetable amaranth, an ancient clima Page: 125 6.1 Introduction Page: 125 6.2 Amaranth in a nutshell Page: 128 6.3 Past research at a glance Page: 130 6.3.1 Genetic diversity Page: 130 6.3.2 Whole-genome sequencing Page: 131 6.3.3 The functional basis of drought tolerance Page: 131 6.4 Nutritional security in the face of climate change Page: 133 6.5 Prospects for future research Page: 135 6.6 Conclusion Page: 138 References Page: 138 7 Metrics for identifying food security status Page: 147 7.1 Introduction Page: 147 7.1.1 Evolving concept of food security Page: 147 7.1.1.1 Beginning of food security definition Page: 147 7.1.1.2 Inclusive elements of food security Page: 148 7.1.1.3 Food and Agriculture Organization ’s overall definition of food security and metrics deriv Page: 148 7.2 Metrics definition Page: 149 7.2.1 Overview of metrics Page: 149 7.2.2 Why is metrics application useful? Page: 149 7.2.3 Evaluating food metrics by food systems Page: 150 7.3 Describing the existing food security metrics Page: 152 7.3.1 The pillars of food security and metrics formation Page: 152 7.3.2 Gaps in food security metrics Page: 154 7.3.2.1 The measure of food system healthiness Page: 155 7.3.2.2 The measure of diet quality Page: 155 7.3.2.3 The measure of people’s ability to food accessibility Page: 155 7.3.2.4 Improving the food intake data in quality and quantity Page: 156 7.3.2.5 The measure of women’s role in nutrition Page: 156 7.3.2.6 The measure of food environment Page: 157 7.3.3 Integrating the food security metrics Page: 157 7.4 Measuring food security status Page: 159 7.4.1 Establishing the concept and process of food security measurement Page: 159 7.4.2 Metrics of food security by its domains Page: 161 7.4.2.1 Food availability measurement Page: 161 7.4.2.2 Food affordability Page: 163 7.4.2.3 Food availability by Global Food Security Index Page: 163 7.4.2.4 Income equality Page: 164 7.4.2.5 Poverty Index Page: 164 7.4.2.6 Food accessibility measurement Page: 164 7.4.2.7 Food utilization measurement Page: 165 7.4.2.8 Food stability measurement Page: 166 7.5 The most modern metrics of assessing the food security status Page: 168 7.5.1 Framing the modern metrics of food security: a model of identification Page: 168 7.5.2 Types of food security measurements validated today Page: 168 7.5.2.1 Prevalence of undernourishment Page: 168 7.5.2.2 Domestic food price volatility Page: 169 7.5.2.3 Relative Dietary Supply Index Page: 169 7.5.2.4 Global Hunger Index Page: 170 7.5.2.5 Global Food Security Index Page: 170 7.5.2.6 Famine Early Warning Systems Network Page: 170 7.5.2.7 Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis Page: 171 7.5.2.8 Household economy approach Page: 171 7.5.2.9 Share of food expenditure by the poor Page: 171 7.5.2.10 Food consumption score Page: 171 7.5.2.11 Household consumption and expenditure survey Page: 172 7.5.2.12 Coping Strategy Index Page: 172 7.5.2.13 Household hunger scale Page: 173 7.5.2.14 Months of inadequate household food provisioning Page: 173 7.5.2.15 Household dietary diversity score Page: 173 7.5.2.16 Analyzing and classifying household dietary diversity score Page: 174 7.5.2.17 Household food insecurity access scale Page: 174 7.5.2.18 Anthropometry Page: 175 7.5.3 The meta-analysis of food security situations and nutritional statistics Page: 175 7.5.4 Rationale of nutrition progress measurement Page: 176 7.6 Summary and review Page: 176 Abbreviations Page: 177 References Page: 178 8 Public policies, food and nutrition security, and sustainable food systems: convergences from the Page: 181 8.1 Introduction Page: 181 8.2 Characteristics of the Brazilian food system: the context where Food Acquisition Program is inse Page: 184 8.3 The construction and execution of the Food Acquisition Program: building food democracy Page: 189 8.4 Food Acquisition Program and the building of sustainable food systems Page: 193 8.5 Food Acquisition Program discontinuity and the weaknesses for sustainable food systems and food Page: 199 8.6 Final considerations Page: 202 References Page: 203 9 Food and nutrition security and wildlife conservation: Case studies from Kenya Page: 209 9.1 Introduction Page: 209 9.2 Literature review Page: 211 9.2.1 Definitions Page: 211 9.2.1.1 Wildlife Page: 211 9.2.1.2 Wildlife conservation Page: 211 9.2.2 Why wildlife conservation Page: 211 9.2.3 Loss of biodiversity Page: 212 9.2.4 Food security and wildlife conservation Page: 213 9.2.4.1 Postharvest losses and food safety Page: 213 9.2.4.2 Food safety factors Page: 214 9.2.5 Contribution of wildlife to household food and nutrition security Page: 215 9.2.6 Gender, wildlife conservation, food, and nutrition security Page: 216 9.3 Food and nutrition security and conservation: Kenyan case studies Page: 218 9.3.1 Introduction Page: 218 9.3.1.1 Contribution of wildlife to the Kenyan economy Page: 218 9.3.2 Kenya wildlife conservation areas (game parks and national game reserves) Page: 218 9.3.3 Human–wildlife conflicts in Kenya Page: 219 9.3.3.1 Human–wildlife conflict in the Tsavo conservation area Page: 222 9.3.3.2 Human–wildlife conflict in Maasai Mara and adjacent group ranches Page: 223 9.3.3.3 Status of human–wildlife conflicts in mountain conservation areas Page: 224 9.3.4 Biodiversity destruction and climate change: Mau ecosystem Page: 224 9.3.5 Impacts of human–wildlife conflicts on food and nutrition security in wildlife areas in Keny Page: 226 9.3.5.1 Predation Page: 226 9.3.5.2 Crop destruction Page: 226 9.3.5.3 Property destruction Page: 227 9.3.5.4 Effect of conflict on humans Page: 227 9.3.6 Mitigation of human–wildlife conflict for improved food and nutrition security in the conser Page: 227 9.3.6.1 Electric fencing Page: 227 9.3.6.2 Formation of community conservancies Page: 228 9.3.6.3 Formation of response teams Page: 228 9.4 Imperatives and challenges Page: 228 9.5 Conclusion Page: 230 References Page: 230 10 Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food and nutrition security Page: 235 10.1 Introduction Page: 235 10.2 Causes of food losses and waste Page: 237 10.3 Environmental and economic implications of food wastage Page: 239 10.4 Food losses and waste, food systems sustainability, and sustainable development Page: 241 10.5 Food wastage in the context of food and nutrition security Page: 244 10.6 Conclusions Page: 248 References Page: 249 11 Dynamics and innovative technologies affecting diets: implications on global food and nutrition s Page: 257 11.1 Importance of fatty acids in the diet Page: 257 11.1.1 General aspects of fatty acids Page: 257 11.1.2 Nutritional requirements and international recommendations Page: 258 11.1.2.1 Lipid classes Page: 258 11.1.2.2 Fatty acids and food security Page: 259 11.1.2.3 Contribution to nutritional security Page: 259 11.1.3 Fatty acids and noncommunicable diseases prevention Page: 260 11.1.3.1 Cancer Page: 260 11.1.3.2 Obesity Page: 261 11.1.4 Fatty acid metabolism: from dietary lipids to target tissues Page: 261 11.1.4.1 Lipid digestion and lipolysis Page: 261 11.1.4.2 Intestinal uptake and transport Page: 262 11.1.4.3 Presentation of the protein involved in fatty acid absorption by enterocyte Page: 263 11.1.4.4 Intracellular trafficking and chylomicron synthesis Page: 263 11.1.4.5 Distribution to target tissues and utilization Page: 263 11.1.4.6 Main sources of animal polyunsaturated fatty acids in Western diets Page: 264 11.2 Implications of natural antioxidants to maintain the nutritional and sensory quality aspects of Page: 266 11.3 Application of emergent technologies and their effect on the fatty acid profile of different mu Page: 270 11.4 Conclusion and perspective Page: 272 Acknowledgment Page: 272 References Page: 272 Index Page: 277 Back Cover Page: Backcover

Description:

Food and nutrition security - identified via availability, access, utilization, and stability - and transitions to sustainable food systems are major discourses in the agro-food arena, as many countries today experience different forms of malnutrition simultaneously, such as child undernutrition, anemia among women, and adult obesity. Meanwhile, the triple burden of malnutrition (undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiency) is still widespread. Food Security and Nutrition explores integrated, context-specific approaches to food security challenges, emphasizing nutrition security as an integral component and addressing the implications of food content to food and nutrition security policies.

Providing insight into these challenges through agricultural, policy, nutritional, geographic and sustainability lenses, Food Security and Nutrition is a valuable reference for food scientists and nutrition researchers working in food supply, food security, and nutrition security, and policy makers, investors, and other decision-makers seeking to address food insecurity around the world.

  • Addresses nutrition security as part of the overall challenge of food security
  • Explores contributing factors that impact both food and nutrition security
  • Presents insights into effective policy development and implementation
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