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Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology PDF

1120 Pages·2008·18.83 MB·English
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Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page i Encyclopedia of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page iii Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 7:32 PM Page iv Copyright © 2008 by SAGE Publications,Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical,including photocopying,recording,or by any information storage and retrieval system,without permission in writing from the publisher. For information: SAGE Publications,Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks,California 91320 E-mail:[email protected] SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road,New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 33 Pekin Street #02-01 Far East Square Singapore 048763 Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of educational psychology/editor,Neil J. Salkind. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4129-1688-2 (cloth) 1. Educational psychology—Encyclopedias. I. Salkind,Neil J. LB1050.9.E63 2008 370.1503—dc22 2007029846 This book is printed on acid-free paper. 08 09 10 11 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Publisher: Rolf A. Janke Acquisitions Editor: Diane McDaniel Developmental Editors: Diana Axelsen,Carole Maurer Reference Systems Manager: Leticia Gutierrez Production Editor: Kate Schroeder Copy Editors: Colleen B. Brennan,Liann Lech Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd. Proofreaders: Anne Rogers,Penny Sippel Indexer: Julie Grayson Cover Designer: Janet Foulger Marketing Manager: Amberlyn Erzinger Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page v Contents List of Entries vii Reader’s Guide xi About the Editor xvii Contributors xviii Introduction xxix Entries Volume 1: A–H 1–498 Volume 2: I–Z 499–1022 Index I-1–I-70 Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page vii List of Entries Abstinence Education Certification Acceleration Charter Schools Acculturation Cheating Adult Learning Child Abuse Affective Development. SeeAttachment Classical Conditioning African Americans Cliques Aggression Cognitive and Cultural Styles Alternative Academic Assessment Cognitive Behavior Modification American Educational Research Association Cognitive Development and School Readiness American Indians and Alaska Natives Cognitive View of Learning Androgyny Communication Disorders Anxiety Competition Applied Behavior Analysis Conduct Disorders Aptitude Confidence Interval Aptitude Tests Conflict Asian Americans Conservation Assessment Constructivism Assistive Technology Contingency Contracts Athletics Continuity and Discontinuity in Learning Attachment Cooperative Learning Attachment Disorder Correlation Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Creativity Autism Spectrum Disorders Criterion-Referenced Testing Aversive Stimuli Cross-Sectional Research Crystallized Intelligence Behavior Disorders Cultural Deficit Model Behavior Modification Cultural Diversity Bell Curve Culture Bilingual Education Curriculum Development Bilingualism Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Deductive Reasoning Brain-Relevant Education Descriptive Statistics Bullying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Calculator Use Direct Instruction Case Studies Disabilities vii Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page viii viii———Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology Discipline Gangs Discovery Learning Gender Discrimination Gender Bias Distance Learning Gender Differences Divergent Thinking Gender Identity Diversity Generalizability Theory Divorce Gifted and Talented Students Domestic Violence Goals Drug Abuse Grade-Equivalent Scores Dynamical Systems Grade Retention Dyslexia Grading Early Child Care and Education Habituation Early Intervention Programs Halo Effect Eating Disorders Head Start Educational Technology High-Stakes Testing Effective Teaching, Characteristics of Hispanic Americans Egocentrism HIV/AIDS Emotional Development Home Education Emotional Intelligence Home Environment and Academic Intrinsic Emotion and Memory Motivation Empathy Homeless Families English as a Second Language Homework Episodic Memory Equilibration Identity Development Erikson’s Theory of Immigration Psychosocial Development Inclusion Essay Tests Individual Differences Ethics and Research Individualized Education Program Ethnicity and Race Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Ethnography Inductive Reasoning Evaluation Inferential Statistics Experimental Design Institutional Review Boards Expert Teachers Instructional Objectives Explicit Memory Intelligence and Intellectual Development Explicit Teaching Intelligence Quotient (IQ) External Validity Intelligence Tests Extracurricular Activities Internal Validity Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation Failure, Effects of Family Influences Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Field Experiments Field Independence–Field Dependence Language Disorders Flashbulb Memories,The Nature of Latinos. See Hispanic Americans Fluid Intelligence Learned Helplessness Frequency Distribution Learning Friendship Learning Communities Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page ix List of Entries———ix Learning Disabilities Obesity Learning Objectives Object Permanence Learning Strategies Observational Learning Learning Style Older Learners Least Restrictive Placement Operant Conditioning Lifelong Learning Literacy Parental Expectations Longitudinal Research Parenting Long-Term Memory Parenting Styles Parent–Teacher Conferences Mainstreaming Peer-Assisted Learning Malnutrition and Development Peer Influences Maslow’s Hierarchy of Basic Needs Percentile Rank Maturation Perceptual Development Mean Personality Tests Measurement Personalized System of Instruction Measurement of Cognitive Phonics Development Physical Development Media Literacy Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Median Poverty Memory PRAXIS™ Mental Age Precision Teaching Mental Health Care in Schools Premack Principle Mental Retardation Private Speech Meta-Analysis Psychoanalytic Theory Metacognition and Learning Psychosocial Development Mnemonics Mode Qualitative Research Methods Montessori Schools Quantitative Research Methods Moral Development Motivation Random Sample Motivation and Emotion Reading Comprehension Strategies Motor Development Reciprocal Determinism Multicultural Classrooms Regression Multicultural Education Reinforcement Multiple-Choice Tests Reliability Multiple Intelligences Risk Factors and Development Myelination Rosenthal Effect Rubrics National Assessment of Educational Progress Scaffolding National Center for Education Statistics Schemas Naturalistic Observation School Counseling Neuroscience School Design No Child Left Behind School Readiness Normal Curve School Resources Norm-Referenced Tests School Violence and Disruption Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page x x———Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology Scientific Method Students’Rights Self-Determination Suicide Self-Efficacy Self-Esteem T Scores Sex Education Teaching Strategies Sexual Orientation Test Anxiety Shaping Testing Short-Term Memory Theory of Mind Single Versus Coed Time-Out Gender Education Token Reinforcement Programs Social Class and Classism Tracking Social Development Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Social Learning Theory Special Education Validity Speech Disorders Vicarious Reinforcement Spelling Virtual Schools Standard Deviation and Variance Vocational Education Standardized Tests Vouchers Standard Scores Vygotsky’s Cultural-Historical Theory Stanford–Binet Test of Development Stanine Scores Statistical Significance Working Memory Stereotypes Stimulus Control Zone of Proximal Development Fm-Salkind2 (Vol-1)-45478.qxd 12/21/2007 3:09 PM Page xi Reader’s Guide This list is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. Some entry titles appear in more than one category. Classroom Achievement Contingency Contracts Cooperative Learning Acceleration Curriculum Development Alternative Academic Assessment Discovery Learning Bell Curve Distance Learning Direct Instruction Early Intervention Programs Educational Technology Educational Technology Failure, Effects of Effective Teaching, Characteristics of Gifted and Talented Students Mainstreaming Goals Montessori Schools Grade Retention School Design Grading School Resources Halo Effect Students’Rights Home Environment and Academic Time-Out Intrinsic Motivation Token Reinforcement Programs Homework Virtual Schools Intelligence and Intellectual Development Vocational Education Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Intelligence Tests Literacy Cognitive Development Media Literacy Parental Expectations Cognitive Development and School Readiness Personalized System of Instruction Conservation Precision Teaching Deductive Reasoning Reading Comprehension Strategies Egocentrism Rubrics Equilibration Spelling Field Independence–Field Dependence Test Anxiety Flashbulb Memories,The Nature of Inductive Reasoning Intelligence and Intellectual Development Classroom Management Literacy Calculator Use Long-Term Memory Cheating Measurement and Cognitive Development xi

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