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Encyclopedia of Biology PDF

417 Pages·2008·6.68 MB·English
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encyclopedia of Biology ENCYCLOPEDIA OF biology don rittner and Timothy L. M Cabe, P .D. c h Encyclopedia of Biology Copyright © 2004 by Don Rittner All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rittner, Don. Encyclopedia of biology / Don Rittner and Timothy L. McCabe. p. cm. Summary: Contains approximately 800 alphabetical entries, prose essays on important topics, line illustrations, and black-and-white photographs. Includes bibliographical references (p. ). ISBN 0-8160-4859-2 1. Biology—Encyclopedias, Juvenile. [1. Biology—Encyclopedias. 2. Encyclopedias and dictionaries.] I. McCabe, Timothy Lee. II. Title. QH309.2.R58 2004 570’.3—dc222003021279 Facts On File books areavailable at special discounts when purchased in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Please call our Special Sales Department in New York at (212) 967-8800 or (800) 322-8755. You can find Facts On File on the World Wide Web at http://www.factsonfile.com Text design by Joan M. Toro Cover design by Cathy Rincon Illustrations by Richard Garratt and Sholto Ainslie Printed in the United States of America VB FOF 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Dedicated to Louis F. Ismay and John F. Roach Two superb teachers who taught me to always ask why and to my family Nancy, Christopher, Kevin, Jackson, Jennifer, & Jason C ONTENTS Acknowledgments ix Preface xi Introduction xiii Entries A–Z 1 Feature Essays: “Blood Identification through the Ages” by John C. Brenner and Demetra Xythalis 44 “Human Cytogenetics: Historical Overview and Latest Developments” by Betty Harrison 67 “The Karner Blue—New York’s Endangered Butterfly” by Robert Dirig 111 “Insects and Man—An Exotic Dilemma” by Timothy L. McCabe, Ph.D. 158 “Science and the Spiritual Factor” by John McConnell 170 “Silk Degrees: A Tale of Moths and People, Part One” by James G. (Spider) Barbour 200 “Sassafras and Its Lepidopteran Cohorts, or Bigger and Better Caterpillars through Chemistry” by Timothy L. McCabe, Ph.D. 202 “Silk Degrees: A Tale of Moths and People, Part Two” by James G. (Spider) Barbour 228 “Egyptian Mummies: Brief History and Radiological Studies” by William A. Wagle, M.D. 233 Appendixes: Appendix I Bibliography 357 Appendix II Biology-Related Websites 363 Appendix III Biology Software and Animations Sources 365 Appendix IV Nobel Laureates Relating to Biology 367 Appendix V Periodic Table of the Elements 377 Appendix VI Biochemical Cycles 379 Appendix VII The “Tree of Life” 381 Index 383 A CKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank the following for their generosity in helping to make this book as complete as possible, especially in the use of images, biographies, essays, and encouragement: Darryl Leja, NHGRI, National Institutes of Health, for wonderful illustrations; Marissa Mills, Human Genome Management Information System, Oak Ridge National Laborato- ry, U.S. Department of Energy Genomes to Life Program; Celia Boyer, executive director, Health On the Net (HON) Foundation; Kristina Fall- enias, Nobel Foundation; Fabienne Meyers, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry; Robert Dirig, Cornell University; Centers for Dis- ease Control; William and Greta Wagle; John McConnell; John C. Bren- ner; Demetra Xythalis; Joseph Deuel, Petrified Sea Gardens, Inc.; Betty Harrison; James G. (Spider) Barbour; Hideki Horikami; Thomas Wittling; and to Nancy, Chris, Kevin, and Jack. Finally,thanks to Frank K. Darmstadt, our verypatient editor,and the rest of the staffat Facts On File for their contributions. We apologize to anyone left out in error. ix

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