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498 Pages·2004·5.91 MB·German
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Child Development title page 8/31/01 4:23 PM Page 1 Child Development cde_fm 8/29/03 7:51 AM Page ii EDITOR IN CHIEF Neil J. Salkind University of Kansas ASSOCIATE EDITOR Lewis Margolis University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill RESEARCH ASSISTANT Mandy D. Goodnight University of Kansas EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF Shawn Beall Project Editor Nancy Dziedzic Dave Salamie Copy Editors William Drennan Rebecca N. Ferguson Proofreaders Datapage Technologies International Compositor MACMILLAN REFERENCE USA Elly Dickason, Publisher Jill Lectka, Associate Publisher Child Development title page 8/31/01 4:23 PM Page 3 Child Development Edited by Neil J. Salkind cde_fm 8/29/03 7:51 AM Page iv Copyright © 2002 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of Gale Group All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the Publisher. Macmillan Library Reference USA Macmillan Library Reference USA 300 Park Avenue South 27500 Drake Road New York, NY 10010 Farmington Hills, MI 48331–3535 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Child development/ edited by Neil J. Salkind. p. cm.—(Macmillan psychology reference series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-02-865618-0 (hc.) 1. Child development. I. Salkind, Neil J. II. Series. HQ772.C436 2002 305.231—dc21 2001037062 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 cde_fm 8/29/03 7:51 AM Page v DEDICATION This book is dedicated to the memory of John C. Wright, whose life tragically ended in the summer of 2001. John was a leading researcher and teacher in the field of child development, and an out- spoken and passionate advocate for children and other groups who did not have a voice of their own. His legacy is in the hundreds of stu- dents he taught and in the colleagues he influenced to be better, more involved, and more concerned people. The good things in life last for limited days, but a good name endures forever. BEN SIRA from The Wisdom of Ben Sira cde_fm 8/29/03 7:51 AM Page vii CONTENTS Preface.........................................................................................ix List of Articles..............................................................................xi List of Contributors.....................................................................xvii Child Development...........................................................................1 Appendix A...............................................................................441 Appendix B...............................................................................473 Index........................................................................................479 cde_fm 8/29/03 7:51 AM Page ix PREFACE Child Development, the first volume in the Macmillan • Biographies are comprised of 400 words and Psychology Reference Series, is an extensive collec- focus on leading characters in the history of child tion of articles about every facet of child develop- development. These are the men and women who ment, ranging from adoption and day care to welfare are best known for the lasting and influential programs and video games. It focuses on topics that effects of their research and writing. are important for the educated parent, pediatrician, Finally, the appendix is replete with visually inter- teacher, high school and college student, or anyone esting and easily understood tables and charts that else interested in better understanding the how’s and include topics such as children in various living why’s of a child’s development. arrangements, child poverty, and youth participating The 289 articles are organized in a way that will in volunteer activities. make the Encyclopedia easily understood and accessi- Each entry is followed by a bibliography. ble. To do this, we organized the collection by creat- ing four separate types of entries: Who Will Use This Encyclopedia? • Overviews are articles consisting of 3,000 words This Encyclopedia is for anyone who wants to that provide an in-depth look at a particular topic know more about the field of child development. This in child development such as parenting, social includes parents, teachers, professionals in the health development, or child abuse. These articles intro- fields, such as doctors and nurses, social workers, duce the reader to all of the important ideas and lawyers, people involved in creating policies that concepts within the topic and provide an intro- affect children and families, school board members, duction to some of the issues and controversies and high school and college students who are inter- important to child development specialists. ested in learning more about children or are writing a term paper on an aspect of child development. • The second type of article is about 1,500 words The editors emphasized the importance of writ- long and serves as an introduction to important ing for an educated audience that might not yet be topics in child development. These are a bit less familiar with many of the terms and ideas relevant to ambitious than the overviews, including brief dis- understanding a child’s development. We tried to cussions about day care, home schooling, and make this material informative and approachable, but friendship. not overly technical. We hope that we have achieved • Definitions are the third article type. These are our goal. 150-word definitions of important terms that should be familiar to anyone interested in child How to Use This Encyclopedia development. Altruism, conservation, and bilin- The topics are organized alphabetically from A to gual education are examples of such articles. We Z. In addition, there are several other ways to locate created definitions of these terms rather than information. writing 1,500- or 3,000-word articles because we did not feel it necessary to elaborate on these top- First, there is an extensive subject index covering ics to the same extent. every topic mentioned in the Encyclopedia along with ix cde_fm 8/29/03 7:51 AM Page x x PREFACE corresponding page numbers for that topic. This Acknowledgments index is located in the back of the Encyclopedia. No book is ever the product of just editors and There are also cross-reference terms at the end of contributors. Child Development is the result of the the entries. These terms refer to other articles that hard work put forth by several people. First, we would contain information about the topic. For example, at like to thank Elly Dickason, Publisher, and Jill Lectka, the end of “Attachment” there is a cross-reference to Associate Publisher, at Macmillan for the opportunity Parent-Child Relationships. to undertake this project. Jill was especially helpful in organizing the team that produced this volume. Second, Shawn Beall was the project manager, and it Who Wrote This Encyclopedia? was because of her flawless organization skills, good nature, and record keeping that we managed to track The topics in this encyclopedia were selected and 289 different articles by almost as many authors. On a organized by Neil J. Salkind and Lewis Margolis (edi- daily basis, Shawn was there to answer questions, tor and associate editor, respectively), with the help of remind authors of article due dates, and respond to Mandy Goodnight. Neil J. Salkind is a professor of queries about format. We would also like to thank Psychology and Research in Education at the imaging coordinator Dean Dauphinais, permissions University of Kansas, while Lewis Margolis is a profes- associate Julie Juengling, and senior art directors sor of Public Health at the University of North Tracey Rowens and Cindy Baldwin for the page and Carolina in Chapel Hill. Mandy Goodnight is a prac- cover design. Additional thanks goes to managing edi- ticing school psychologist in western Kansas. tor Betz Des Chenes for the time and effort she con- All of the entries were written by leading experts tributed to writing captions and “putting out fires.” in their field or those who were under their supervi- And finally, to our contributors we want to sion. Each author was asked to make a specific contri- express our heartfelt thanks. The quality and tone of bution. The diversity and excellence of the contribu- the writing is excellent, especially given the audience tors adds an unmistakable flavor of comprehensive- to which this volume is addressed. With authors such ness and authority to the entries. Speaking for all of as these writing about, caring about, and working with the editors, it was a pleasure and an honor to have children and their families, there is hope for the such a distinguished group of scholars contribute to future and the role that children will play in building the volume. a better world. Neil J. Salkind Lewis Margolis August, 2001 cde_fm 8/29/03 7:51 AM Page xi LIST OF ARTICLES Abortion Amniocentesis Bandura, Albert Trude Bennett Yvonne M. Caldera Robert C. Hardy Dennie Nadeau Androgyny Bayley, Nancy Abstract Reasoning Claire Etaugh Tracy L. Smith Susan Setley Anger Behavior Analysis Acquired Immune Deficiency Mary Elizabeth Curtner-Smith Don Bushell Jr. Syndrome Bell Curve Antisocial Behavior Lori Wiener Patricia A. Haensly Anne I. H. Borge Staci Martin Bilingual Education Apgar, Virginia Deana Reimer Acting Out Rosemary C. White-Traut David Nelson Jeannette M. Alvarez Apgar Scoring System Gillian S. Garfinkle Binet, Alfred Joanne Bregman Jennifer D. Wishner Activity Level Apnea Janette B. Benson Birth Evelyn B. Thoman Leah M. Kelly Neil J. Salkind Artificial Insemination Birth Defects Adolescence Marc Fritz Anita Farel Jacquelynne S. Eccles Robert Meyer Asian-American Children Adoption Maggie Hicken Jennifer Teramoto Pedrotti David M. Brodzinsky Birth Order and Spacing Asthma African-American Children James A. Troha Ericka V. Hayes Vonnie C. McLoyd Birthweight Algea O. Harrison-Hale Attachment Martha Slay Kathleen McCartney Greg R. Alexander After-School Programs Eric Dearing Mary Ann Pass David Peres Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Black English Aggression Disorder Aquiles Iglesias Maria Adiyanti Sandra J. White Blended Families Ainsworth, Mary Dinsmore Salter Attention Span Glendessa M. Insabella Inge Bretherton Nathan W. Gottfried Bowlby, John Altruism Autism Nancy Hazen Elaine A. Blechman Bryna Siegel Brain Development American Sign Language Babbling and Early Words Mark H. Johnson Donna J. Crowley Esther Dromi Michelle de Haan xi

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