The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization OF THE Ibn Kathir Translated by Professor Trevor Le Gassick Reviewed by Dr Muneer Fareed G a r n e t p U s L I s H I N G 'I&LIFE O F me PaopmM u m v01um I1 Pubfid by Garner Publishing Limited 8 Southern Court Sourh Srreer w i g RG14QS UK Copyrighr @ 1998 The Cenrer for Muslim Contribution to Civilization All rights reserved No parr of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any decrmnic or mechanical means, induding informarion storage and retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher, m p rb y a reviewer who may quore brief pasages in r review ISBN-13: 978-1-85964-143-9 ISBN-10: 1-85964-143-1 First Edition 1998 First Paperbadr Edirion ZOO0 Reprinted 2002,2004,2006 Bridsh Libl-ary Cadwing-in-Publica~ionD ata A cadogue record for this bwk is adable from the British Library Rinted in Lebanon CONTENTS Foreword ix About this Series .x.i. Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization: Board of Trustees XIII Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization: Board xiv Introduction by Muneer Fareed xv Translator's Preface xxiv Volume I1 Chaptec Concerning the migration ofthose Companions ofthe Projhet (W)w ho escapedf rom perseation with their faith from Mecca to Abyssinia. 1 'Umar 6. ol-Kha~faabc cepts Islam. 19 AN ACCOUNTO F THE DISAGREEMENT OF THE QURAYTRSIBHES OF THE BAND HASHIMA ND THE BANOC ABD AL-MUTTALIINB HELPING THE MESSENGEORF GOD( SAAS). ALSO CONCERNING THEIR CONFINEMENT OF THEM IN THE QUARTER OF ABO TALIB FOR A LENGTHY PERIOD AND THEIR WRITING AN EVIL, BRAZEN DOCUMENT TO THAT EFFECT. AND THE SIGNS OF THE PROPHETHOOD AND PROOFS OF THE TRUTH THAT BECAME EVIDENT REGARDING ALL THIS. 27 Those mho mocked. 32 AN ACCOUNTO F THE DETERMINATION OF ABO BAKR", THE TRUSTINTGO" , EMIGRATE TO ABYSSINIA. 41 The Story of A'sha b. Qays. 52 The Story of the contest with Rukana and how the Prophet (SAAS) showed him a tree that he summoned and it came to him. 54 SECTIOCNO: NCERNINTHGE ISRA>, THE NIGHT JOURNEY, OF THE MESSENGER OF GOD( SAAS) FROM MECCATO JERUSALEM, HIS ASCENT FROM THERE TO HEAVEN, AND THE S~GNSH E SAW THERE. 61 SECTIONCO: NCERNINTGHE SPLITTING OF THE MOON IN THE TIME OF THE PROPHE(TS AAS). 76 SECTION: THED EATH OF ABO TALIB, UNCLE OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD (SAAS), AND THEREAFTER THAT OF KHADIJA, DAUGHTER OF KHUWAYLIDAN, D THE WIFE, MAY GODB E PLEASED WITH HER, OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD (SAAS). 81 SECTIONO:N HIS MARRIAGE AFTER THE DEATH OF KHADIJA, GODB LESS HER, TO 'A'ISHA, DAUGHTER OF ABU BAKR,A ND TO SAWDA, DAUGHTER OF ZAM'A,G ODB LESS THEM BOTH. 92 SECTION: ONH IS DEPARTURE TO THE PEOPLE OF TA'IF TO CALL THEM TO ALMIGHTYG OD,A ND TO COME TO THE AID OF HIS FAITH; HOW THEY REFUSED HIM THIS AND HE RETURNED TO MECCA. 99 SECTIONO:N T HE CALL OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD( SAAS) TO THE ARAB TRIBES DURING THE PILGRIMAGE SEASONS TO HELP AND SWPORT HIM vi THE LIFE OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD AGAINST THOSE PERSECUTING AND DENYING HIM. NONEO F THEM AGREED, SINCE GODA LMIGHTYH AD RESERVED THAT GREAT HONOUR TO THE ANS~R (THE "HELPERSO"R "PARTISANOSF" )M EDINAM, AY GODB E PLEASED WITH THEM. 103 AN ACCOUNTF ROM SUWAYBD. SAMIT, THE A N S ~ R ~ . 116 The acceptance ef Islam by Iyar b. Mu'adh. 117 Chapter: The commencement of the acceptance ofIslam by the angr, the "Helpers"of Medina, God bless them. 118 AN ACCOUNTO F THE SECOND MEETING AT AL-CAQPBA. 129 SECTIONT:H ATG IVES THE NAMES OF THOSE WHO ATTENDED THE SECOND MEETING AT AL-'AQABA, THEIR NUMBER, ACCORDING TO IBNI SHA% TOTALLING SEVENTY-THREE MEN AND TWO WOMEN. 140 Chapter: The beginning of emigrationf rom Mecca to Medina. 143 SECTIONO:N T HE CAUSE OF THE EMIGRATION OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD (SAAS). 151 Chapter: The emigration ofthe Messenger of God ($AAS)from Mecca to Medina accompanied by Abfi Bakr "the Trustjng", God be pleased with him. 154 The Story of Umm Ma'bad at-Khuzxciyya. 170 SECTIONO:N THE ENTRY OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD( SAAS) INTO MEDINAA,N D WHERE HE ESTABLISHED THEREIN HIS DWELLING, COMPRISING MATTERS RELATED THERETO. 176 THEE VENTS OF THE FIRST YEAR OF THE HEGIRA: AN ACCOUNTO F THE MAJOR EVENTS AND HAPPENINGS IN THE FIRST YEAR FOLLOWING THE EMIGRATION OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD( SAAS). 189 SECTIONO:N THE ACCEPTANCE OF ISLAMBY 'ABD ALLAH B. SALAM, MAY GODB E PLEASED WITH HIM. 194 AN ACCOUNTO F THE SERMON OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD( SAAS) THAT DAY. 197 SECTIONO:N THE BUILDING OF THE HOLY MOSQUE DURING THE PERIOD OF THE RESIDENCE OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD( SAAS) AT THE HOME OF ABO AYYOB,M AY GODB E PLEASED WITH HIM. 200 Indications of the excellence of this noble morgue and this esaltedplace. 206 SECTIONO: N THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN THE EMIGRANTASN D THE HELPERTSH ROUGH THE DOCUMENT HE HAD DRAWN UP BETWEEN THEM. ON THE NATURE OF THAT BROTHERLY RELATIONSHIP HE MADE BETWEEN THEM, AND ON THE FRIENDLY RELATIONS HE ESTABLISHED WITH THE JEWS WHO WERE IN MEDINA. 212 SECTIOONN: THE ESTABLISHMENT BY THE MESSENGEORF GOD( SAAS) OF A PACT OF BROTHERHOOD BETWEEN THE EMIGRANTASN D THE HELPERSSO THAT THEY WOULD BE FRIENDS. 214 Chapter: On the death ofAbh Umama As'ad b. ZurZra. 218 CONTENTS vii Chapter: On the birth of'Abd ANnh b. al-Zubayr in the month ofShamw~iln the year when the emigration occurred. Chapter: On the call to prayer and its legitimacy upon the arrival of the Prophet (+MAS) in Medina. Chapter: On the espedition ofHamza b. 'Abd al-Murtalib, may God be pleased with him. Chapter: On the expedition of'Ubayda b. al-Hnrith b. 'Abd al-Muttalib. AN ACCOUNTO F WHAT HAPPENED IN THE SECOND YEAR OF THE HEGIRA. THE BOOK OF MILITARY EXPEDITIONS AN ACCOUNTO F THE FIRST MILITARY EXPEDITION, THAT OF AL-ABW~',A LSO CALLED WADDANA,N D THE FIRST OF THE DELEGATIONS SENT. The espedition to BUD@,i n the neixhbourhood of RadwZ. The expedition to al-'Ushoyro. Thefirst espedition to Badr. Chapter: On the expedition of'Abd Allah b. Jahsh that mas the causefor thegreat engagement at Badr. SECTION: CONCERNITNHGE CHANGE IN THE PRAYER DIRECTION IN 2 AH BEFORE THE BATTLE OF BADR. SECTION: ON THE INSTITUTION OF THl! FASTING MONTH OF RAMADANIN 2 AH, BEFORE THE BATTLE OF BADR. The great bottle of Badr; the day ofthe FuryZn, the ds~erentiutionb etween good and evil, the day the tmo hosts met. The death ofAha l-Bakhtari b. Hisham. Chapter: On the death of Umayya b. KhalaJ The death ofA6J~a hl, God damn him! How the Prophet (SAAS) replacedQatada's eye. Another similar account. AN ACCOUNTO F HOW THE HEADS OF THE UNBELIEVERS WERE THROWN INTO THE WELL AT ~m BATTLE OF BADR. The deaths of al-Ndr 6. al-Hdrith and 'Uybe 6. Abo Mucay!, God damn them! AN ACCOUNTO F THE JOY OF THE NEGUSG, ODB LESS HIM, AT THE OUTCOME OF THE BATTLE OF BADR. Chapter: On the arrival of the news of those stricken at Badr to their families in Mecca. The Names of rhore at Badr arranged alphabetically. The letter elif The letter bz". The letter 22. The letter t&". The lenerjim. The letter ha'. THE LIFE OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD Thc lenn kha'. 333 The lctter dhZ1. 333 The letter ra". 333 The lener z2y. 334 The letter sin. 334 Thr letter shin. 335 The letter$ad. 335 The letter d$. 336 The letter $8'. 336 The letter @. 336 The lettcr 'ayn. 336 The letter ghayn. 339 The l a rf 2. 339 The lttter gaJ 339 The lener kzJ 339 The letter mim. 340 The lettn niin. 341 The letter ha?. 341 The letter warn. 341 The lenerya?. 341 Those men horn by 'Runan: agnomma. 342 Chapter: On the excellence of those Muslims who werepresent at Bdr. 345 On the arrival of Zaynab, daughter of the Meuenger of God (&US), as an Emigrantfrom Mecca to Medino a month after the battle of Badr in fufillmmt of the condition placed upon her husband by the Prophet (WAS). 347 SECTIOVNE:R SESC OMPOSED ABOUT THE GLORIOUS BATTLE OF BADR. 352 SECTIOONN: THE EXPEDITION AGAINST THE BAN0 SULAYIMN THE SECOND YEAR AFTER THE EMIGRATION OF THE PROPHE(TS AAS). 365 SECTIONO:N THE EXPEDITION AGAINST AL-SAW~QDIHNO A L-HIJJA THAT YEAR, IT ALSO BEING KNOWN AS THE EXPEDITION TO QARQAARLA-KTAD R. 365 SECTIONO:N THE MARRIAGE OF CALI B. ABO TALIB, GODB E PLEASED WITH HIM, TO HIS WIFE FATIMA, DAUGHTER OF THE MESSENGEORF GOD (SAAS). 366 SECTIONRE: FERENCTEO A VARIETY OF EVENTS THAT OCCURRED IN THE YEAR 2 AH. 369 Glossary Index In the Name of God, the Beneficent, the Mncrful FOREWORD THEi nterrelationship and interaction of human cultures and civilisations has made the contributions of each the common heritage of men in all ages and all places. Early MusIun scholars were able to communicate with their Western counterparts through contacts made during the crusades; at Muslim universities and centres of learning in Muslim Spain (al-Andalus, or Andalusia) and Sicily to which many European students went for education; and at the universities and centres of learning in Europe itself (such as Salerno, Padua, Montpellier, Paris, and Oxford), where Islamic works were taught in Latin translations. Among the Muslim scholars well-known in the centres of learning throughout the world were al-Ri&i (Rhazes), Ibn Sin%( Avicenna), Ibn Rushd (Averroes), al Khwzrizmi and Ihn Khaldiin. Muslim scholars such as these and others produced original works in many fields. Many of them possessed encyclopaedic knowledge and distinguished themselves in many disparate fields of knowledge. In view of this, the Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization was estab- lished in order to acquaint non-Muslims with the contributions Islam has given to human civilisation as a whole. The Great Books of Islamic Civilization Project attempts to cover the first 800 years of Islam, or what may be called Islam's Classical Period. This project aims at making available in English a wide selection of works representative of Islamic civilisation in all its diversity. It is made up of translations of original Arabic works that were produced in the formative centuries of Islam, and is meant to serve the needs of a potentially large reader- ship. Not only the specialist and scholar, but the non-specialist with an interest in Islam and its cultural heritage will be able to benefit from the series. Together, the works should serve as a rich source for the study of the early periods of Islamic thought. In selecting the books for the series, the Center took into account all major areas of Islamic intellectual pursuit that could be represented. Thus the series includes works not only on better-known suhjects such as law, theology, jurisprudence, history and politics, hut also on subjects such as literature, medi- cine, astronomy, optics and geography. The specific criteria, used to select individual books, were these: that a book should give a faithful and comprehensive account of its field, and that it should be an authoritative source. The reader thus has at his disposal virtually a whole library of informative and enlightening works. Each hook in the series has been translated by a qualified scholar and reviewed by another expert. While the style of one translation will naturally differ from x THE LIFE OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD another, the translators have endeavoured, to the extent it was possible, to make the works accessible to the common reader. As a rule, the use of footnotes has been kept to a minimum, though a more extensive use of them was necessitated in some cases. This series is presented in the hope that it will contribute to a greater under- standing in the West of the cultural and intellectual heritage of Islam and will therefore provide an important means towards greater understanding of today's world. May God Help Us! Muhammad bin Hamad Al-Thani Chairman of the Board of Trustees ABOUT THIS SERIES THISs eries of Arabic works, made available in English translation, represents an outstanding selection of important Islamic studies in a variety of fields of know- ledge. The works selected for inclusion in this series meet specific criteria. They are recognized by Muslim scholars as being early and important in their fields, as works whose importance is broadly recognized by international scholars, and as having had a genuinely significant impact on the development of human culture. Readers will therefore see that this series includes a variety of works in the purely Islamic sciences, such as Qur'm, hadiih, theology, prophetic traditions (sunna), and jurisprudence (jiqh). Also represented will be books by Muslim scientists on medicine, astronomy, geography, physics, chemisny, horticulture, and other fields. The work of translating these texts has been entrusted to a group of pro- fessors in the Islamic and Western worlds who are recognized authorities in their fields. It has been deemed appropriate, in order to ensure accuracy and fluency, that two persons, one with Arabic as his mother tongue and another with English as his mother tongue, should participate together in the translation and revision of each text. This series is distinguished from other similar intercultural projects by its distinctive objectives and methodology. These works will fill a genuine gap in the library of human thought. They will prove extremely useful to all those with an interest in Islamic culture, its interaction with Western thought, and its impact on culture throughout the world. They will, it is hoped, fulfil an important rBle in enhancing world understanding ata time when there is such evident and urgent need for the development of peaceful coexistence. This series is published by the Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, which serves as a research centre under the patronage of H.H. Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, Amir of Qatar. It is directed by a Board of Trustees chaired by H.E. Sheikh Muhammad bin Hamad d-Thani, the former Minister of Education of Qatar. The Board is comprised of a group of prominent scholars. These include H.E. Dr Abul-Wafa d-Taftazani*, Deputy Rector of Cairo University, and Dr Yusuf al-Qaradhawi, Director of the Sira and Sunna Research Center. At its inception the Center was directed by the late Dr Muhammad Ibrahii Kazim, former Rector of Qatar University, who estab- lished its initial objectives. The Center was until recently directed by Dr Kamal Nagi, the Foreign Cultural Relations Advisor of the Ministry of Education of Qatar. He was assisted by a * Died 1994, may All& have mercy on him.