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Donald C. Haggis, Margaret S. Mook THE EARLY IRON AGE-ARCHAIC TRANSITION AT AZORIA IN EASTERN CRETE* The Azoria Project completed five years of banization at the end of the 7th century through excavation in 2006 (Haggis et al. 2004; 2007a; the early 6th century, which we consider to be a 2007b; Whitley et al. 2007). The aims of field- phase of significant growth on Crete, involving work have been to document parts of a nascent the restructuring of settlement and reorganiza- Greek city that are relevant to reconstructing tion of emerging centers while establishing the sociopolitical and economic organization on essential form and character of Greek cities of Crete in the Archaic period, and using Azoria the Classical and Hellenistic periods on the is- as a case study, to identify the stages of devel- land. opment of the settlement from 1200 to 500 B.C. The advantage of examining this transition The main goal of the project has been to exam- at Azoria is that excavation has recovered strati- ine the form of a small-scale Archaic Cretan graphic evidence for continuous occupation city, looking at changes in the political econo- throughout the Early Iron Age coupled with a my in the 6th and early 5th centuries, periods catastrophic and sudden abandonment in the that have in the past been characterized by eco- early 5th century. This late Archaic destruction nomic recession and isolation from the wider horizon preserves, in essence, a pristine Archaic Greek world (Morris 1992; Prent 1996-1997; city in its earliest phases of development —ar- Coldstream – Huxley 1999; cf. Kotsonas 2002). chaeological contexts suggest the components Countering this trend in the literature, the cen- of a “proto-polis,” indications of the initial stag- tral argument of the Azoria Project has been es of urbanization and coalescence of civic in- that the economic growth apparent in the later stitutions, unencumbered or unobscured strati- part of the Early Iron Age (EIA) and the ear- graphically by later Classical or extensive Helle- ly Archaic period culminates in a period of ur- nistic-Roman occupational sequences. In 2006, we explored the western slopes of the South Acropolis (fig. 1) completing the excavation of * This paper is dedicated to the memory of William the Archaic civic complexes: namely, the puta- D.E. Coulson, our friend and teacher. Funding for the Azoria Project has been provided by the National Science tive andreion, consisting of a complex of kitch- Foundation (BCS-0438073); the National Geographic ens, storerooms, and dining facilities; and the Society (7193-02; 7614-04); the National Endowment for Monumental Civic Building, a large main hall the Humanities (RZ-20812; RZ-50334); the Wenner-Gren with stepped seats and an adjoining shrine and Foundation for Anthropological Research (GR 6875); the Institute for Aegean Prehistory; the Loeb Classical Library adjacent service complex (Service Building). Foundation; the College of Arts and Sciences, the Office of Ultimately, we are interested in understanding the Vice Chancellor for Research, and the Department of how and precisely when the Archaic form of the Classics (James Penrose Harland and Berthold Lewis Ull- settlement was established, including this dis- man Funds) of the University of North Carolina at Chapel tinctly public or civic architecture, and the na- Hill; the INSTAP Study Center for East Crete (in kind); and the Azoria Project Fund (0-65305-42). 516 DONALD C. HAGGIS, MARGARET S. MOOK ture of the transition from Late Geometric to While Late Minoan IIIC to Late Geomet- Archaic periods. ric remains have been exposed across the ex- With this diachronic perspective, we are cavated areas of the South Acropolis, the clear- able to reconstruct details of the dynamics of est stratigraphy was exposed in 2003 and culture change at Azoria at the end of the 7th 2004 in the well-preserved deposits underly- century, presenting a picture of nucleation of ing the Archaic Service Building (Haggis et al. population, reorganization of public and pri- 2007b). Here it was noticed that the founda- vate space, and the appearance of new forms tions for Archaic structures had intruded upon of architecture and systemic assemblages, very Early Iron Age and Early Orientalizing build- much in keeping with normative views of ma- ings, usually destroying or burying earlier ar- terial patterns in the wider Aegean (Lang 1996; chitectural remains. Most often, where occu- 2007, esp. 183-190), as well as in Crete itself. pation surfaces were recovered below Archaic Evidence on the island to date suggests a date levels, they proved to be Late Minoan IIIC in near 630 for significant changes in burial and date, although 8th and 7th century floors have settlement mobility, which Kotsonas (Kotso- been found. The foundation deposits are usu- nas 2002) connects to polis formation. Azo- ally mixed deposits of EIA and Early Oriental- ria might be a case in point. By the 6th centu- izing pottery, the latter date providing a very ry the Azoria settlement had evidently expand- broad terminus post quem for the main Archa- ed to its maximum size, which we estimate to ic rebuilding phase. Thus the tentative founda- have been as large as 15 hectares. At the end of tion date for the initial Archaic building phase, the 7th century, material patterns show a ho- including its series of impressive megalithic rizon of rebuilding that includes the establish- spine walls and new house types, seems to be ment of public buildings, the formalization and the middle to the late 7th century (Haggis et al. elaboration of what can be called civic architec- 2007b; cf. Kotsonas 2002). In this period the es- ture, and thus the creation of the city center it- sential form of the Archaic settlement was es- self (fig. 1). For Azoria, Kotsonas’s date of 630 tablished. While modifications and additions (Kotsonas 2002, 53-54) for the formation of cit- were made throughout the 6th and early 5th ies is not far off, although we need to complete centuries, the 7th century marks the significant the study of stratified assemblages to be certain. period of change, imprinting on the landscape It suffices to say here that evidence for a late 7th a new settlement plan and new ideas about how century change is found across the site. space was to be used. We use the term “civic” because we think Thus, our working hypothesis for exca- that the contexts suggesting public activities at vation in 2006 was that sometime in the mid- the site —new building practices; reorganiza- to-late 7th century a sociopolitical change had tion of public and domestic space; and changes occurred involving or instigating a deliber- in the agropastoral economy and suprahouse- ate break from the Early Iron Age past and its hold activities— reflect social configurations five century-old patterns of occupation. Recent in keeping with an Archaic urban environment stratigraphic work sheds light on this abrupt and administered organizational structure. The transition, and has shown the potential of re- term “city-state” implies an urban center and its fining the date of transition. On the southwest surrounding territory, a broader regional com- slope of the South Acropolis the southern end munity growing out of preexisting EIA village- of a large building of Late Geometric date was clusters that had, by the end of the 7th century recovered (fig. 1: B3000). Its internal width is relocated social, political, economic conscious- about 6.0 meters, and there is a well-built door- ness and practices from the wider region to the way in the center of the exposed south wall, South Acropolis of Azoria (Haggis 2005). leading to another room, which was largely de- THE EARLY IRON AGE-ARCHAIC TRANSITION AT AZORIA IN EASTERN CRETE 517 stroyed and remodeled in the early 7th centu- We think that these are the remains of feasts or ry (fig. 2). The early 7th century modifications sacrifices discarded from the building in its last also included a new built threshold in the door- phase of use. The interior of the building is as way of the extant south wall and an additional yet unexcavated, but its size, chronology, quali- room constructed on the east side of the build- ty and regularity of construction, associated as- ing, opening directly onto a courtyard to the semblage, and axial-aligned access to the main south (fig. 2). Both the added room and court- room, suggest the remains of a hearth temple or yard are at a higher level than the original LG house temple (Prent 2007, esp. 143-144). building. The courtyard was evidently sepa- Sometime toward the end of the 7th or rated from the raised ground level of the main early 6th century, the building was abandoned, building by a retaining wall and was accessible filled in, and covered over with a street that via a stairway at the south end. runs along the terrace to the west (fig. 5). This While the function of this LG-EO build- street is important as it was to provide the main ing is not yet fully understood —the actual in- access to the Archaic civic buildings on the west teriors of the rooms have not been excavated— slope (fig. 1: “Service Building” and “Monu- the 7th century courtyard was found littered mental Civic Building”). Another clue to the with burnt and unburnt pottery dating from EIA-Archaic transition came to light a bit far- LM IIIC to the Orientalizing period, but pri- ther south on the same terrace. The 7th centu- marily belonging to Late Geometric and Early ry inhabitants apparently constructed a street Orientalizing (fig. 3). The deposit consists of and a building complex, perhaps a house, di- over 7000 sherds and the vast majority, some rectly over an intact Early Iron Age tholos tomb 85 percent, are fine ware, with more than half (fig. 1: B3700), incorporating the capstone and the fine-ware sherds belonging to drinking ves- stomion into the eastern wall of the later Ar- sels (various cups, including low-necked cups, chaic building (fig. 6). The tholos tomb is small skyphoi, kotylai) and approximately one fifth and roughly elliptical in shape with a height of representing pouring vessels (especially hy- 1.25 m. from the floor to a single schist-slab driae and some oinochoai). Among the coarse capstone. On preliminary analysis, it appears sherds, the only commonly represented shape that there were at least four adults and two chil- is the cooking pot, comprising over 60 percent dren, with the earliest burials pushed to the of the coarse pottery. Furthermore, the condi- back of the tomb, and the latest extending into tion of the pottery from this deposit is unique the stomion. The finds included a hand-built among the ceramic assemblages thus far recov- juglet, a flask, a stirrup jar fragment, a skyphos, ered from the site in the thoroughness and uni- a juglet and a bowl, two conical ceramic whorls, formity of the breakage and the infrequency and a bronze ring fragment. While some sherds with which joins among sherds could be found, on the floor of the tomb are LM IIIC in date, suggesting that it is the result of ritual activi- the vessels associated with burials are Protogeo- ty repeated over a long period of time. Sherds metric in date (Whitley et al. 2007). from thin-walled pots, such as drinking vessels, Thus, in the late 7th century, the modifica- have a typical maximum preserved dimension tion of the southwest slope involved the delib- of 1.5 - 4 cm, while those from larger and thick- erate filling-in and burial of a Late Geometric- er-walled shapes, like hydriae, are 3-6 cm in Orientalizing building of considerable size and size. Approximately 60 percent of this pottery special function —possibly a house temple— exhibits indications of burning. The ceramic re- as well as an LM IIIC-Protogeometric tomb in mains are found along side large numbers of order to accommodate a new street (figs. 5-6). animal bones, also burnt and unburnt (fig. 4) in The entire renovation project can be connected a matrix of dark, ashy soil (fig. 5: “burnt layer”). to a major phase of rebuilding across the site 518 DONALD C. HAGGIS, MARGARET S. MOOK —the construction of spine walls as well as the ries of well-built steps, forming a kind of seat- civic buildings to the west and north. ing area or theatral space, was built up against We think that this effective erasure of Early the west face of the terrace wall that supported Iron Age structures is characteristic of a broad- the fill of the shine terrace. er process of renovation and the reorganization A number of objects were found lying di- of private and public space in the settlement in rectly on the top of the altar, while others, pre- the Archaic period. Signs of this urban renewal served in the matrix of collapsed ceiling debris, are apparent in every area of the site, usually in had evidently fallen from the altar on the west the form of deep pebble and cobble fill depos- and south sides. The objects include two mini- its that conceal earlier constructions and con- ature skyphoi, a miniature bronze bowl, three tain displaced Early Iron Age occupation debris ribbed stands, and 14 terracotta figurines and (Haggis et al. 2007b). This foundation fill is of- fragments. The figurines consist of a variety of ten found associated with the construction of types and stylistic dates: hollow cylindrical; dai- massive —sometimes megalithic— spine walls dalic wheel and mould made; zoomorphic; and that run along the natural contours, serving to four coarse anthropomorphic Geometric fig- structure habitation space and communication ures (fig. 7.3-6). All of the anthropomorphic routes (Haggis et al. 2004, 349-352, 364-366; figurines, including the Geometric types, are 2007a, 263-265). The physical transformation female. Additional finds from the room include of space, involving the alteration, obliteration, a glass bead, a spindle whorl, a piece of folded or complete concealment of the Early Iron Age bronze and a number of marine shells: triton’s topography, must also reflect changing social trumpet, clam, limpets, and murex. A bore’s identities and a new political consciousness: tusk and cranial fragments were also recovered. the construction of a new urban environment A doorway in the northwest corner of the required a deliberate disengagement from and room has a step up to a small irregularly shaped reorientation to the Early Iron Age past. storeroom. Burning on the floor and a fallen On the west slope of the South Acropo- olive-wood roof beam in the south half of the lis, two cult places came to light in 2006, allow- room are indications of the Late Archaic de- ing further reflection on the transition between struction, which left a well-preserved assem- Iron Age and Archaic occupation phases. Im- blage including two pithoi, a Geometric krater mediately west and downslope from one of the (Knossian PGB) (fig. 8.1), three transport am- andreion storerooms are the remains of a typi- phorae —one evidently containing wine— an cal bench shrine of Late Minoan IIIC date (fig. Attic lamp and exaleiptron, and a bronze awl. 1: “LM IIIC shrine”). One fragment of a large Three things are interesting about the terracotta figure with upraised arms was found shrines exposed on the west slope of the South on the bench, and four other fragments were Acropolis (fig. 1). First, they occupy a space be- found in the vicinity of the bench. Immediate- tween the Andreion Complex and the Monu- ly below and southwest of the LM IIIC shrine mental Civic Building, suggesting a cognizance is another shrine, a small two-room building or recognition and historical memory of a place of Archaic date (fig. 1: “Archaic Shrine”). The of local significance or community cult, surviv- building is situated on a terrace formed by a rise ing the Early Iron Age-Archaic transition. Sec- in the bedrock immediately north of and acces- ond, the close juxtaposition of two shrines of sible through a doorway in the north wall of the very different date is probably evidence of some Monumental Civic Building. It consists of two continuity of cult activity in this area of the site small interconnected rooms: the southernmost or recognition of the importance of the area. Fi- room has a clay floor and a rectangular bench nally, the condition of the LM IIIC shrine in- or altar and adjoining stone-lined hearth. A se- dicates that it might have been respected and THE EARLY IRON AGE-ARCHAIC TRANSITION AT AZORIA IN EASTERN CRETE 519 perhaps even maintained throughout the early such buildings had come to occupy a domi- Archaic building phases. Contrary to the usual nant and formal position with combined politi- pattern of destruction, burial, or conscious con- cal and cultic roles within the emerging urban cealment of Early Iron Age structures on the topography of Cretan cities. The basic forms of southwest slope, the shrine was likely to have hearth temples, such as at Dreros and Prinias, been left intact if unused throughout the Ori- suggests that such a building at Azoria would entalizing renovations, during which the small have housed a small group of privileged par- two-room Archaic shrine was built on the ter- ticipants, a narrowly defined and probably lo- race immediately below. cal elite structured by kinship relationships The finds from the Archaic shrine itself that are likely to have consisted of certain aris- further demonstrate continuity of activity. Ge- tocratic families from Azoria itself. If a hearth ometric figurines are found alongside 7th and temple is to be found on the southwest slope in 6th-century types on the altar of the south B3000, as we have suggested here, it was pur- room (fig. 7.3-6), while in the north room, the posefully destroyed and decisively buried to Geometric krater (fig. 8.1) was recovered in the make way for new civic complexes that incor- same floor deposit as the 5th century ampho- porated cult buildings and activities. We con- rae, and other objects such as the imported ex- clude from this that in the Archaic period ritual aleiptron and lamp. This is to say, in the context activity was channeled to new venues of public of cult, ritual equipment survived the urbaniza- congregation and display such as the andreion, tion phase and was reintegrated into new build- the Monumental Civic Building with its shrine, ings. Objects were recycled for reuse in new and the Cult Building on the south slope (fig. 1) contexts of ritual display, while the LM IIIC- (Haggis et al. 2007a; Whitley et al. 2007). This PG bench shrine was respected, if not effective- does not however indicate that the substance ly incorporated into the new urban topography. or meaning of ritual had changed significant- Thus, in the late 7th century at Azoria dif- ly, only that the identity of the participants and ferential responses to the Early Iron Age topog- their sociopolitical relationships had to be re- raphy may reflect different kinds of social and defined and reoriented to a new poliadic struc- political behavior in the emergent city. In gen- ture requiring new architectural forms. The na- eral, the Archaic context of the EIA remains in- ture of the change must be sought in patterns of dicates a conscious effort to conceal the past mobility of cult places and cemeteries, as well as by means of constructing a new civic topogra- in the changing patterns of deposition in these phy. Early Iron Age buildings and objects had contexts (Perlman 2000, 74-76; Kotsonas 2002, a strong symbolic value requiring that they be 46-50). What Azoria adds to the discussion is carefully controlled, rationed, and reintegrat- that the regionally disparate cemeteries, sanctu- ed into new systemic contexts that emphasized aries, and settlements of the Early Iron Age go new and perhaps more distinctly public venues out of use in the course of the 7th century (Hag- of aristocratic display, but at the expense of vis- gis 2005), at precisely the same time that Azoria ible references to specific local lineage connec- was both expanding and formalizing its urban tions, such as the possible hearth temple and PG character, part of which involved the construc- tholos tomb on the southwest slope. If Prent is tion of new public buildings that integrated ar- right that hearth temples represent, in the first eas for ritual, communal dining, and consump- instance, a “spatially indistinct” elite context of tion of prestige goods (Haggis et al. 2007a). ritualized commensality and sacrifice, operat- Another interesting and related pattern is ing alongside other EIA venues of cult activity, that while buildings may have been destroyed such as the LM IIIC-type bench shrine (Prent or replaced in the late 7th century, EIA objects 2007, 148), by the 8th and early 7th centuries were evidently selected and reused. For exam- 520 DONALD C. HAGGIS, MARGARET S. MOOK ples, an LM IIIC pithos appears in a 5th-cen- bols of age-old lineage groups, are found literal- tury storeroom in a house on the south slope ly buried over, visibly and symbolically erased, (Haggis et al. 2004, 354), while LM IIIC and while Minoan and Early Iron Age artifacts were Geometric figurines (fig. 7.1-2), as well as a apparently selectively retained and redistribut- Protogeometric B Geometric krater (fig. 8.2) ed in new civic venues of public display. Civic have been recovered from Archaic contexts in buildings on the site are locations of commu- the Service Building on the southwest slope nal feasting, displays of prestige goods, and sac- (Haggis et al. 2007b). In the Monumental Civ- rificial ritual— ostensibly a paradigmatic con- ic Building (fig. 1), a large hall with stepped firmation of the shift in emphasis from specific seats and adjacent service rooms, significant and local kinship to communal identities and amounts of dining debris attest to public feasts civic consciousness; the essence of the Greek of some kind, and the adjoining shrine, men- city. tioned above, contains recycled Early Iron Age On the surface of things elite depositional vessels and votives. In the main hall itself, the practices and even the household symposium presence of kernoi attests to ritual functions had become integrated into the social fabric of within the building’s main hall—one moveable public, political and cultic rituals. In the puta- stone kernos (fig. 9), found face down on one tive andreion, and Monumental Civic Build- of the steps in the building, is certainly of a Mi- ing complexes, personal sympotic equipment, noan type perhaps recycled from a Bronze- or weapons and armor, and imported pottery and Early Iron-Age context somewhere on the site metals were used and consumed in spaces used or from one in the surrounding region. The new specifically for public dining and sacrificial of- meaning of these antiques was perhaps not as ferings. This new urban architecture does not heirlooms-that is, meaning conferred by virtue embrace, renovate, or actively monumentalize of their connection to specific places, people, or preexisting EIA buildings, but suppresses and kinship groups. We think that they might have even actively erases them from the urban to- expressed more generic notions of antiquity; pography. Objects on the other hand were care- general and intrinsic, re-formed in the new sys- fully recovered, laterally cycled, and reincorpo- temic context of the civic center, perhaps inde- rated into new venues of communal ritual and pendent and irrespective of their specific origin. ritualized political interaction (figs. 7-9), -look- By way of contrast, because the LM IIIC shrine ing like largely corporate social strategies of in- on the west slope was tied to ancient commu- tegration. Yet what we know of the actual orga- nity cults, it might have been maintained, pre- nization of the Cretan city is that it appears to served, and perhaps reintegrated into the fabric have retained many aspects of its kinship-cor- of the city. Even though the two-room Archaic porate structure, not unlike David Small’s view shrine had effectively and practically replaced of Greek poleis such as Athens (Small 1995; its EIA predecessor, it was physically connected 1997). What is perhaps important is that politi- to the Monumental Civic Building, emphasiz- cal power of the Archaic Cretan city was variably ing the reintegration of the cult into the inclu- distributed and counterpoised, suggesting insti- sive civic institutions of the Archaic city. tutional divisions that had, by the early 6th cen- In conclusion, the results of recent excava- tury, taken on material and architectural forms. tions at Azoria demonstrate a radical rebuild- The juxtaposition of civic buildings on the west ing in the late 7th century —a punctuated point slope at Azoria could reflect a bilateral and or a Yoffeesque phase transition that should even heterarchical structure, aspects of the de- involve some form of cognitive restructuring centralized and economically bifurcated polis. (Yoffee 1997). Early Iron Age houses and buri- We are not saying that local elites with Ear- als, and perhaps the house temple itself, sym- ly Iron Age kinship ties were necessarily sup- THE EARLY IRON AGE-ARCHAIC TRANSITION AT AZORIA IN EASTERN CRETE 521 pressed, dissolved, or even diluted in the new Haggis, D.C. – Mook, M.S. – Snyder, L.M. – political configurations of the Archaic city — Carter, T., 2007b. Excavations at Azoria in indeed the lingering identities of such groups 2003 and 2004 Part 2, the Early Iron Age and their connections to the Dark Age past are and Final Neolithic settlements, Hesperia emphatically expressed in the Late Geometric 76, 665–716. and Orientalizing record (Wallace 2003). It was Kotsonas, A., 2002. The rise of the polis in cen- however necessary for them to be reshaped and tral Crete, Eulimene 3, 37-74. reintegrated in new social institutions with in- Lang, F., 1996. Archaische Siedlungen in Grie- ter and intra-regional political implications chenland: Struktur und Entwicklung, Ber- (Kotsonas 2002, 55-56). We tend to oversim- lin. plify the situation, however, if we express the Lang, F., 2007. House-community-settlement: transition as merely a shift from the interests the new concept of living in Archaic Greece, of local elite, a Dark Age aristocracy, to those in R. Westgate – N. Fisher – J. Whitley of a broader or more inclusive community —a (eds.), Building Communities: House, Set- demos or middling citizenry. What is impor- tlement and Society in the Aegean and Be- tant about the transition in the late 7th century yond. Proceedings of a Conference held at is the mobility and reintegration of community Cardiff University 17-21 April 2001, London, cult and social groups into architectural forms 183-193. that expressed new ideas about the organiza- Morris, S.P., 1992. Daidalos and the Origins of tion of the city, while providing the means and Greek Art, Princeton. sociopolitical contexts to cross-cut the inherent Perlman, P., 2000. Gortyn: The First Seven Hun- limitations and divisive boundaries of localiz- dred Years (Part I), in P. Flensted-Jensen – ing and ancient kinship structures. The Archa- T.H. Nielsen – L. Rubinstein (eds.), Polis ic inhabitants of Azoria did not ignore or shun and Politics: Studies in Ancient Greek His- their connections to their Early Iron Age past, tory, Copenhagen, 59-90. they simply reinvented them and found new Prent, M., 1996-1997. The Sixth Century B.C. in ways to express their links to the landscape and Crete: the best candidate for being a dark a new community of place. age?, in M. Maaskant-Kleibrink (ed.), De- bating Dark Ages. Papers on Mediterranean Archaeology, Caeculus 3, Groningen, 35-46. BIBLIOGRAPHY Prent, M., 2007. Cretan Early Iron Age Hearth Temples and the articulation of sacred Coldstream, J.N. – Huxley, G.L., 1999. The Ar- space, in R. Westgate – N. Fisher – J. Whit- chaic Gap, BSA 94, 289-307. ley (eds.), Building Communities: House, Haggis, D.C., 2005. The archaeological survey of Settlement and Society in the Aegean and the Kavousi region. Kavousi I, the results of Beyond. Proceedings of a Conference held the excavations at Kavousi in eastern Crete, at Cardiff University 17-21 April 2001, Lon- Prehistory Monographs 16, Philadelphia. don, 141-148. Haggis, D.C. – Mook, M.S. – Scarry, C.M. – Small, D.B., 1995. Heterarchical paths to ev- Snyder, L.M. – West, W.C., 2004. Excava- olution: the role of external economies, tions at Azoria, 2002, Hesperia 73, 339-400. in R.M. Ehrenreich – C.L. Crumley – J.E. Haggis, D.C. – Mook, M.S. – Scarry, C.M. – Sny- Levy (eds.), Heterarchy and the analysis of der, L.M. – Fitzsimons, R.D. – Stephana- complex societies, Archaeological Papers of kis, E. – West, W.C., 2007a. Excavations at the American Anthropological Association Azoria in 2003 and 2004, Part 1, The Ar- 6, Arlington, 77-79. chaic civic complex, Hesperia 76, 243-321. Small, D.B., 1997. City-State dynamics through 522 DONALD C. HAGGIS, MARGARET S. MOOK a Greek lens, in D.L. Nichols & T.H Char- Wallace, S., 2003. The perpetuated past: re-use leton (eds.), The archaeology of city-states: of continuity in material culture and the cross-cultural approaches, Washington, structuring of identity in Early Iron Age D.C., 107-118. Crete, BSA 98, 251–277. Yoffee, N., 1997. The obvious and the chimerical: Whitley, J. – Germanidou, S. – Urem-Kotsou, city-states in archaeological perspective, in D. – Dimoula, A. – Nikolakopoulou, I. – D.L. Nichols & T.H Charleton (eds.), The Karnava, A. – Evely, D., 2007. Archaeolo- archaeology of city-states: cross-cultural ap- gy in Greece 2006-2007, Archaeological Re- proaches, Washington, D.C., 255-265.  ports for 2006-2007 53, 98-102. THE EARLY IRON AGE-ARCHAIC TRANSITION AT AZORIA IN EASTERN CRETE 523 Fig. 1. Azoria: plan of the South Acropolis (R.D. Fitzsimons and G. Damaskinakis 2006). 524 DONALD C. HAGGIS, MARGARET S. MOOK Fig. 2. B3000: Late Geometric building and Early Orientalizing additions. Fig. 3. B3000: examples of EIA-EO pottery from the EO “burned layer.”

part of the Early Iron Age (EIA) and the ear- ly Archaic period culminates in a period of ur- banization at the end of the 7th century through the early 6th century,
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