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The Dessert Architect PDF

373 Pages·2009·0.75 MB·English
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rllI DESS J \RClul - < " - Goodbye, Cupcake! TIlE ARCt--I C ON TE Preface VII Acknowledgements x CHAPTER I The Four Cornerstones CHAPTER 2 Il1.!Jredients and Equipment 22 CHAPTER 3 Creatil1.!J a Dessert Menu CHAPTER 4 P/attn,g CHAPTER 5 Dessect & Beverage Painn,gs 72 CHAPTER 6 Desserts Appendices A: Resources for Ingredients 388 B: Web Sites Useful to the Pastry Chef 390 C: Organizations Offering Continuing Education Opportunities 391 D: Important Temperatures for the Pastry Chef 392 Bibliography 393 Glossary 394 Index 402 rhe frour Corners Introduction Cornerstone n. Chapter Objectives somerhlng rhar IS essemial, Indispensable or basIc; rhe chief After reading thIS chapter, roundarlon on which somerhlng IS consuucred or developed you should be able to: .. /. .1" • Describe what the Four a In analyzing any successful dessen, from the simplest pie la mode to the most Cornerstones are and why they are important elaborare multilayered cake or pastry, you will find thar what appears simple on the surface may not in fact be so simple. Explain the role of ingredients in taste Building a dessert is not unlike construcring a building. However, insread of using • Describe the importance of steel, concrere, and glass, the pasrry chef's primary building blocks are flour, sugar, different textures in creating dairy products, and flavorings. Each of the elements comprising the whole plays a dessert that is satisfying a distinctive and important role in ultimately making rhe dessert satisfying and Understand the interplay and successful-successful because it illustrates to at least some degree each of the contrasts between elements following Four Cornerstones. in a multicomponent dessert In architecture, when all of the elements of the building work rogether to create an aesthetically pleasing whole, we consider that building well designed. To the dessert architect,adesserc properly plated and presented, on the righr-sized, -shaped, and -colored plate is like a building well suited ro its location (appropriare to the tone of the food service venue in which it is served), taking into account the placement and interplay of elements on the plate. When a building is completed, and aesthetically pleasing, it forms a harmonious whole, making all who enter it feel welcome, comforrable, uplifted, or jusr secure. Likewise, de~serts should comfort, not challenge, offering to rhe diner a moment when all of rhe Intru,'ons of rhe workaday world can be blocked our, a way to escape to a place of pure pleasure and sarisfacrion, uncomplicared by feel ings of guilr or self-doubt. 3 Building on principles of balance, both visual and physical, knowing fully the weIght-bearing cap'Kity of building materials, and applying both principles of good design coupled with functionality, the architect effectively translates a design on paper into three-dimensional reality. So it is, too, with the work of the des sert archirect who draws upon a full command of knowledge of ingredients, tools, and techniques to create a well-conceived dessert, informed by what I call the Four Cor nerstones: first and foremost, Flavor, and then Texture, Temperature, and COnttast. All of this work begins with an undersranding of the primacy of Flavor, the first of Four Cornerstones in the dessert architect's arsenal of knowledge, learning the importance of using high-quality ingredients in correCt combinations. La!JI'n.!J the Cornerstones In this book, I will systematically present a series of basic preparations and techniques of dessert making that may be combined in countless ways to ptoduce a myriad of ex traordinary desserts. All of this flows, however, from an understanding of the primacy of flavor, the first of Four Cornerstones in the dessert architect'sarsenal of knowledge, which includes learning the importance of using high-quality ingredients in correct combinations. How can you learn to create if you haven't yet learned how to raste) All pastry students and practitioners must taste, taste, and then taste again en route to the perfect rendition of a dessert, sharpening their palates ro recognize the subtle but important differences in ingredients and how those ingredients shape and influ ence what ends up on the dessert plate. The other three nearly inseparable cornerstones of £ine dessert making are texture, temperature, and underpinning each of those, contrast. Whether the consumer clearly perceives it or not, the text ute of a dessert affeCts one's perception of its domi nant flavors and leads to pleasure on the palate. For example, take note of the texture of a mousse in a dessert. Is it perfectly smooth, one texture throughout, or intention ally enlivened with bits of still-whole fruit? In the context of the other elements on the plate, would one version of mousse be preferable to another) Temperature also plays an important role and is related ro texture. Consider the shatteringly crisp layers of a freshly prepared napoleon pastry compared with one that has been under refrigeration for a day. The former succeeds as a touchsrone of the pastry maker's art, while the latter may be perceived as JUSt ordinary, or worse, memorable for the wrong reasons. Contrast, the last of the Four Cornerstones, represents an essential element in any successful dessert. Thinking about desserts from the perspeCtive of contrast-sweet versus tart, hot versus cold, soft versus frozen, and crunchy versus smooth-IS a necessary precursor to crafting desserts that are memorable. a Consider an American favorite, apple pie la mode. An analysis of its elements-a flaky, buttery crust, soft-crunchy apples, a fortuirous combination of spices, ice-cold ice cream contrasting with warm pie-shows that it includes all of the Four Cornerstones, " The Dessert Architect The Four Cornerswlles Every recipe in this book was crafted with the Four Cornerstones in mind: Aavor, texture, temperature, and contrast. Whether an Individual has an intellectual ap preciation of these four characteristics or not, the diner's senses nonetheless perceive these multidimensional qualities. The characteristics are described here in enough detail that you will be able to successfully apply them to your pastry creations. Cornerstone One: Flavor I, \\()i{ n. ta< 'e, 5€ pecially th~ dlStlllC[lve tastE of >omethlrg") It IS eX'Jenenced III the mouth l..N( 'v III t\, ,R I H. l ( l<j l '" ,"'I ( It is no accident that flavor is the first cornerstone to any successful dessert. With our it, the pastry chef's work would be pointless. As a pastry chef, keep the fol lowing essential question in the back of your mind: Does the dessert have flavor or, even though it may be pleasing to the eye, is it bland and does it, therefore, merely represent empty calories' Regardless of what inspires you, the first point of inspiration must be flavor, whethet considering a perfectly ripe peach in season and how it may be treated in a dessert (often minimal manipulation is best) or a well-balanced high-quality chocolate cou verture. Even with a mastery of basic techniques, skilled pastry chefs can create des sertS only as memorable as the flavors of their prime ingredients. Flavor comes from flavor. What you start with is what you will end up with. Developing Your Palate In the quest for a highly flavored dessert, where should you begin? First, it's essential to taste the main ingredients that you intend to use. How can you create flavorful desserts if you haven't educated your own palate first? As men tioned in the introduction, all students and practitioners of pastry must taste each element of a dessert alone and then in combination to be sure that the end result is satisfying, harmonious, and delicious at least in the eyes of the person ptoduc ing it. Taste, and taste again. Ask yourself questions such as the following to help ensure that your finished products encompass that first cornerstone, flavor: • Does the fruit have a definite flavor? What is its flavor? Is it sweet, tart, floral, or a combination of all of these? • Is the chocolate creamy or coarse? Is its dimension sweet or complex, with what balance of fruity or smoky notes? Chapter 1 The Four Cornerstones S • Are the nuts fresh tasting or rancid? How do the nuts taste raw? How do they taste when roasted? Tasting tharts ro help clarify your thinking about ingredients may be found below and on p,lges 2 27, and 29. I, Categorizing Flavor In order ro understand the role of flavor in a dessert, it is best ro start by putting flavors into broad categories. Admirtedly, this process is often a subjective exercise, so feel free to insert additional ingredients into the following chart, or move ingre dients into other categories as your taste impressions dictate. Note that some items with highly complex flavors appear more than once. When using the chart to analyze the recipes in this book, you will note that the components that make up a single dessert most often will each be drawn from a different category, thereby making the overall flavor profile of the dessert more complex and interesting. When developing desserts of your own, you can also use the chart as a rool ro anticipate or plan for the dessert's multiple flavor dimensions. a In analyzing any successful dessert, from the simplest pie la mode to the most elaborate multilayered cake or pastry, you will find that what appears simple on the surface may not in fact be so simple. The instructions in this book are intended to help you make the final result look effortless to the diner's eyes. Flavor Inventory Chart Description of categories offlavor Ingredients that exhibit these characteristics Flavors that dominate or are "forward" Chocolate. banana. berries. cassis (black currant). ripe melons (Galia. can taloupe. Charentais. pepino). white peach. ginger (fresh. dried. or candied). hazelnut. gianduja (smooth hazelnut chocolate paste). Nutella (sweetened chocolate-hazelnut spread). honey Flavors that provide a backdrop for other Sweet. rich dairy ingredients such as milk and cream. coconut. white flavors. flavors that recede into the background chocolate Flavors that are soft. subtle. mute. faint. Cherimoya. egg in pastry doughs or in sauces and custards. cream otherwise elusive cheese-based fillings Flavors that "kick in" after the first few bites Cardamom. plum. curry Ravors perceived as sour; tan. acidic. acetic Apricots. citrus of all kinds (including bergamot orange. lemon. Meyer lemon. kaffir lime. lemongrass. limes. yuzu). tomatoes. persimmons. sour dried plums. pomegranate. quince. rhubarb. tamarind. balsamic vinegar. cranberries. lemon curd. dried hibiscus flowers. star fruit. cassis (black currant). red currant. blackberry FIa'OIi perceIVed IS saky (even in the arena Salted caramel. malted milk powder .,. ...n takin& undertones of saIdness an! p5 C' " and IppRra)pori.a "te. i f only au CGntIUt to .,r. ....1 Mr lIS. and to NJd,u the "'I,ts at Inllfthedo q 1'1:) '11Ie Detrert Architect Flavor Inventory Chart (continued) Description of categories Ingredients that exhibit these characteristics of flavor Lapsang Sou chong tea, Armagnac (brandy from southwest France), Flavors perceived as smoky Calvados (apple brandy from Normandy, France), Cognac (brandy from the Cognac region of France), Scotch whiskey, certain chocolate couvertures Ginger (fresh, dried, candied), cardamom Flavors perceived as pungent Lyle's Golden Syrup, sugar cane juice, caramel, dates, dried figs, maple Flavors perceived as sweet, intensely sugary, syrup, honey, cajeta (a cooked mixture of goat's or cow's milk caramelized caramelized (perceived as less sweet) with sugar), condensed milk, soft and hard meringue, angel food cake, butterscotch, milk chocolate, white chocolate Astringent aperitifs with herbs and fruits (such as Campari, Cynar, and Flavors perceived as bitter, sharp, biting Punt e Mes), cocoa nibs, dark cocoa, tangerine, lime, key lime, white peppercorns, black peppercorns Lavender honey, violet essence, jasmine flowers and flower-based teas, Flavors perceived as floral Darjeeling tea, rose water, orange-blossom water, Asian pears, Muscat grapes, nougat, Forelle pears, Iychee, lemongrass, white peaches, Gewurtztraminer and Muscat grape-based wines Flavors perceived as herbal Thyme, basil, fennel, tarragon, pandan leaf or extract (a flavoring considered the "vanilla" of Southeast Asian cuisine), Pernod or other anise-flavored liqueur, mint Flavors perceived as vegetal, vernal, grasslike, Shiso (Japanese herb, also known as perilla), carrots, beets, fennel, anise, "green" tamarillo, Kabocha squash, pumpkin, green tea. fresh mint Flavors perceived as earthy Rice, polenta, couscous, whole wheat flour, prickly pear, chestnut. sweetened chestnut puree, high-percentage couverture chocolate, graham crackers, black teas, beets, carrots Flavors perceived as spiced. with warm spice Cinnamon, allspice, star anise, cloves, ginger, chai notes Flavors perceived as winey. alcoholic, "hot." Fruits marinated in alcohol, such as brandied cherries; eau de vie, fermented white alcohols (such as eau de vie de framboise or eau de vie de poire), port Flavors perceived as cultured, fermented. tart. Creme fraiche, buttermilk, goat cheese, blue cheese, sour cream, yogurt, or acidic based on dairy products mascarpone Flavors perceived as perfumed. exotic Passion fruit, feijoa (a tropical fruit in the guava family, also known as pineapple guava mango), pineapple, tamarillo, cherimoya, bergamot orange, Iychee, mirabelle plum Flavors perceived as focused. concentrated. Vanilla, praline, coffee made from freshly roasted beans memorable. unforgettable. leaving a strong but pleasant aftertaste. with a lingering effect on the palate Flavors containing opposing impressions within Bittersweet chocolate, coffee, candied citrus rind (orange, lemon, one main ingredient-such as sweet and tart. pomelo, grapefruit, sweet lime), kumquats, limequats, raspberries, port sweet and sour, sweet and pungent wine, peches de vigne (red-fleshed peaches), plums of all kinds, including purple, mirabelle, pluots Flavors that are perceived as roasted. toasted. Coffee, nuts, nut pastes (almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut), sesame burned, intensified by deep roasting seeds and roasted sesame paste, tahini, halvah, peanut butter, browned butter (beurre noisette), croquantine (commercially made crisp thin flakes of baked pastry), Japanese genmaicha tea (green tea-based flavored with roasted rice), green tea, oven-dried or oven-roasted tomatoes, dried fruit chips (persimmon, pear, apple) Chapter 1 1he four Cor. .

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