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359 Pages·2015·5.32 MB·English
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The Courtiers’ Anatomists The Courtiers’ Anatomists Animals and Humans in Louis XIV’s Paris ANITA GUERRINI The University of Chicago Press Chicago and London Anita Guerrini is Horning Professor in the Humanities and professor of history in the School of History, Philosophy, and Religion at Oregon State University. She is the author of Experimenting with Humans and Animals: From Galen to Animal Rights and Obesity and Depression in the Enlightenment: The Life and Times of George Cheyne. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London © 2015 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved. Published 2015. Printed in the United States of America 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 1 2 3 4 5 ISBN- 13: 978- 0- 226- 24766- 3 (cloth) ISBN- 13: 978- 0- 226- 24833- 2 (e- book) DOI: 10.7208/chicago/9780226248332.001.0001 Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data Guerrini, Anita, 1953– author. The courtiers’ anatomists : animals and humans in Louis XIV’s Paris / Anita Guerrini. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-226-24766-3 (cloth : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-226-24833-2 (e- book) 1. Zoology—Study and teaching—France—Paris—History. 2. Anatomy—Study and teaching—France—Paris—History. 3. Académie des sciences (France)—History. 4. Histoire des animaux. 5. Perrault, Claude, 1613-1688. 6. Du Verney, M., 1648-1730. I. Title. QL51.2.F8G84 2015 590.760944’361—dc23 2014039631 ♾ This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48- 1992 (Permanence of Paper). To the memory of my parents, Rita Lillian Greco Guerrini 1923– 1981 Armando Severino Guerrini 1922– 2014 CONTENTS A Note on Names, Dates, and Other Matters / ix Abbreviations Used in the Notes / xi List of Illustrations / xiii Introduction / 1 ONE / Anatomists and Courtiers / 17 TWO / The Anatomical Origins of the Paris Academy of Sciences / 50 THREE / The Animal Projects of the Paris Academy of Sciences / 92 FOUR / The Histoire des animaux / 128 FIVE / Perrault, Duverney, and Animal Mechanism / 165 SIX / The Courtiers’ Anatomist: Duverney at the Jardin du roi / 201 Conclusion / 239 Epilogue: The Afterlife of the Histoire des animaux / 247 Acknowledgments / 255 Notes / 259 Bibliography / 299 Index 327 A NOTE ON NAMES, DATES, AND OTHER MATTERS In general I have given proper names in the vernacular rather than in Latin— so “du Laurens” rather than “Laurentius,” “Stensen” rather than “Steno,” and “Johnstone” rather than “Jonsonius.” There are a few excep- tions, including Johannes Walaeus. There is little agreement about the lat- ter’s name in Dutch (“de Wale”? “de Waal”?), and he is universally referred to in secondary literature as “Walaeus.” In referring to animals, when the gender of the animal is known, I refer to it as “he” or “she.” Otherwise, “it” is used. The year is assumed to begin on 1 January, as it did in France. Dates on correspondence are given as their authors gave them. On quotations from French and Latin: If there is a contemporary En- glish translation, I have quoted from that (sometimes silently modified for clarity), citing both the original and the translation. Most of the quotations from the Histoire des animaux, therefore, rely on Alexander Pitfeild’s 1687 translation. Any translations without such citation are my own. While I have retained the original spelling in seventeenth- century French quotations, I have silently regularized the use of accents. I have, however, retained original punctuation and other seventeenth- century diacriticals such as umlauts and circumflexes. On money: The French livre, or pound, in use until 1795, consisted of twenty sols or sous, each of which was worth twelve deniers. It is notoriously difficult to assess the value of money in the past. Suffice it to say that 1,500 livres, the amount that many original members of the Paris Academy re- ceived as their pensions from the crown, would have been a reasonable but not princely middle- class income in the 1660s. Most academicians had other income sources, so they were not totally dependent on their pensions (although some were). In comparison, Duverney’s garçon, or lab assistant,

The Courtiers' Anatomists is about dead bodies and live animals in Louis XIV's Paris--and the surprising links between them. Examining the practice of seventeenth-century anatomy, Anita Guerrini reveals how anatomy and natural history were connected through animal dissection and vivisection. Driven
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