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THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ISLAM VOLUME 2B Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF ISLAM VOLUME 2B ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND CIVILIZATION EDITED BY P. M. HOLT Professor of Arab History in the University of London ANN K. S. LAMBTON Emeritus Professor of Persian in the University of London BERNARD LEWIS Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York ww w.cambridge. org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521219495 © Cambridge University Press 1970 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in two volumes 1970 First paperback edition (four volumes) 1977 First four-volume hardcover edition 1978 Volume 2B reprinted 1980, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1995, 2000 A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 73-77291 ISBN 978-0-521-21949-5 hardback ISBN 978-0-521-29138-5 paperback Transferred to digital printing 2007 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS List of Plates page vii Acknowledgements x Preface xi Introduction xiii PART VIII. ISLAMIC SOCIETY AND CIVILIZATION 441 1 THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING 443 by x. DE PLANHOL, University of Nancy 2 THE SOURCES OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION 469 by the late G. E. VON GRVNEBAVM, formerly at Near Eastern Center, University of California 3 ECONOMY, SOCIETY, INSTITUTIONS JII by CLAUDE CAHEN, University of'Paris 4 LAW AND JUSTICE 539 by the late j. SCHACHT, Columbia University, New York 5 RELIGION AND CULTURE 569 iyLOUiSGARDET, College Phihsophique et Tblologique, Toulouse 6 MYSTICISM 604 by the late A. j. ARBERRY, University of Cambridge 7 REVIVAL AND REFORM IN ISLAM 632 by FAZLUR RAHMAN. Central Institute of Islamic Research, Karachi 8 LITERATURE: 657 (A) ARABIC LITERATURE 657 by IRFAN SHAHID (b) PERSIAN LITERATURE 67I by E. YAR-SHATER, Columbia University, New York (c) TURKISH LITERATURE 682 iyFAHiRiz, University of Istanbul (d) URDU LITERATURE 695 ^AZIZAHMAD, University of Toronto Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS 9 ART AND ARCHITECTURE JOZ by G. FEHERVARI, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London IO SCIENCE 741 I, Institut Dominicain tTEtudesOrientales, Cairo 11 PHILOSOPHY 780 by s. PINES, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 12 WARFARE 824 by the late v. j. PARRY, formerly at the University of London 13 THE TRANSMISSION OF LEARNING AND LITER- ARY INFLUENCES TO WESTERN EUROPE 851 by F. GABRIEU, University of Rome Dynastic List 890 Bibliography 891 Glossary 907 Index 911 VI Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES \a Damascus, the Great or Umayyad Mosque, the so-called 'Baradd' mosaic panel under the western portico b The Umayyad palace of Mshatta: audience hall with the triple apse za Qusayr 'Amra, view from the north b Qusayr 'Amra, painting of the enthroned monarch in the alcove 3<z Jericho, Khirbat al-Mafjar, mosaic floor in the bath b Ewer of the Umayyad Caliph, Marwan II, Persian, second/eighth century 44 Ukhaydir, the eastern gateway, looking from the north b Samarra, the Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, the Bab al-'Amma (221/836) 5<7 Samarra, stucco panel from a recently excavated private house b Samarra, Jawsaq al-Khaqani palace, wall fresco representing dancing girls from the harem c Samarra, the Great Mosque with the Malwiyya 6a Beaker, splashed and mottled ware, Mesopotamia, third/ninth century b Large dish, tin-glazed cobalt blue painted ware, Mesopotamia, third/ninth century c Small bowl painted in polychrome lustre, Mesopotamia, third/ninth century d Large bowl, slip-painted ware, NishapQr, fourth/tenth century -ja Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulfln, 263-5/876-9 b Cairo, Mosque of Ahmad b. Tulun, view of the sanctuary with two stucco flat mihrabs on two pillars in the foreground %a Cordoba, the Great Mosque, the mihrab, 354/96$ b Bukhara, the mausoleum of Isma'il the Samanid, 295/907 9a Tim, Uzbekistan, mausoleum of 'Arab Ata, 367/977-8, zone of transition b Na'In, mihrab and minbar of the Masjid-i Jami', late fourth/tenth century 1 oa Cairo, Mosque of al-Azhar, dome over court end of sanctuary with stucco decorations and window grills, c. 545/1150 b Kharaqan, recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, 486/1093 vii Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES 11 Cairo, Mosque of al-Juyushi, the stucco mihrdb, 478/1085 1 la Large dish, lustre painted, Egypt, fifth/eleventh century b Fatimid painting: siege of a fortress, Egypt, sixth/twelfth century 13 Damavand, a recently discovered Seljuk tomb-tower, fifth/eleventh century 14a Ardistan, Masjid-i Jami', 5 5 3-5/115 8-60, zone of transition b Hamadan, Gunbad-i 'Alawiyyan, sixth/twelfth century 15a Natanz, Masjid-i Kuchi Mir, stucco mihrdb, sixth/twelfth century b Mosul, the Great Mosque, 543/1148, the minaret 16a Divrighi, Ulu Jami1, 626/1229, detail of the main entrance b Ankara, Arslankhane Jami', faience mihrdb, 688-9/1289-90 17a Bowl, decoration msgraffiato technique; Persian, Amul, late fourth/ tenth or early fifth/eleventh century b Jug, so-called 'Seljuk white ware'; Persian, Rayy or Kashan, late sixth/twelfth century c Large dish, lustre-painted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/twelfth or early seventh/thirteenth century d Bowl, overglaze, so-called mind'ipainted; Persian, Rayy, late sixth/ twelfth or early seventh/thirteenth century 1 $a Bucket, inlaid with silver, made in Herat, signed and dated: 559/1163 b Ewer, brass, inlaid with silver, signed by Shuja' b. Mana', dated: 629/1232 19a Miniature painting: the Pharmacy, from Dioscorides's Materia Medica, Baghdad, 681/1224 b Miniature painting: Abii Zayd before the governor of Merv. From the Maqdmdt of al-Harirl, Baghdad, c. 622-33/1225-35 ^oa Islamic calligraphy: (i) simple Kufic, (ii) foliated Kufic, (in) floriated Kufic, (iv) Naskhi, (v) Thuluth, (vi) Nasta'liq b Seljuk carpet from Anatolia, seventh/thirteenth century 2.1a Aleppo, gateway to the citadel, sixth/twelfth century b Cairo, the Mausoleum of Imam Shafi'I, woodcarvings of the cenotaph, 608/1211 22a Detail of an inlaid bronze canteen, early seventh/thirteenth century b Rabat, minaret of Mosque of Hassan 23*7 Granada, the Alhambra, eighth/fourteenth century b Natanz, the minaret of the Masjid-i Jami', 704-9/1304-9, and the dome of the tomb of Abii Samad, 707/1307 24a Samarqand, Gur-i Mir mausoleum, general view, 807/1404 viii Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 LIST OF PLATES Samarqand, Shah-i Zinda, detail of portal of Tughluk Tekin's mausoleum, 774/1372 .25 a Miniature painting from the Jdmi' al-tawartkh of Rashid al-Dln, 714/1314: Muhammad replacing the stone in the Ka'ba b Miniature painting from the Shdh-nama: Bahrain Gur hunting and the death of his mistress, Azada; Shiraz school, early eighth/ fourteenth century 26 Miniature painting from the Diwdn of Hafiz: Dance of the der- vishes ; Herat, Bihzad's school, late ninth/fifteenth century zfa Cairo, facade of the mausoleum of Qalawun, 683-4/1284-5 b Mamluk carpet, Egypt, ninth/fifteenth century 28a Isfahan, the 'AH Qapu palace, early eleventh/seventeenth century b Edirne, Selimiye Jami', built by Sinan Pasha, 997-83/1569-75 zya Dish, Iznik pottery, third period, early eleventh/seventeenth century. Crown copyright b Turkish embroidery, twelfth/eighteenth century 30 Isfahan, minaret of the Masjid-i Shah, 1020-48/1612-38 31a The so-called 'Polish rug', silk pile; Persian, eleventh/seventeenth century b Safavid metalwork: covered bowl, dated: 1089/1678. Crown copyright 32a Large dish, so-called 'Kubachi' ware, north-western Persia, eleventh/seventeenth century. Crown copyright b Persian white, so-called 'Gombroon', ware, ewer, late eleventh/ seventeenth/century. Crown copyright The plates appear between pages 708 and joy. lx Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008

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