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Sustainable Urban Planning PDF

355 Pages·2008·2.27 MB·English
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Sustainable Urban Planning Tipping the Balance Robert Riddell Sustainable Urban Planning the design of building the City doth go on apace;and by description,it will be mighty handsome,and to the satisfaction of people.But I pray God it will come out not too late. Samuel Pepys, Sunday, 25 November 1666, two months after the Great Fire of London Sustainable Urban Planning Tipping the Balance Robert Riddell © 2004 by Robert Riddell 350 Main Street, Malden, MA02148-5020, USA 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Robert Riddell to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other- wise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2004 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Riddell, Robert, 1934– Sustainable urban planning : tipping the balance / Robert Riddell. p. cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1–4051–0289–6 (alk. paper)—ISBN 1–4051–0290–X (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Urban ecology. 2. City planning—Environmental aspects. 3. Sustainable development. I. Title. HT241.R53 2003 307.76—dc21 2003051819 Acatalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10 on 12.5pt Palatino by SNPBest-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall Illustrations by Bruce Weir For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com Contents List of Boxes viii List of Figures ix Acknowledgements x Glossary xii Introduction 1 Part I Principles 5 1 Sustainable and Ethical 7 Development, Planning and Sustainability 12 Property, Interests and Neomodernity 16 Property 16 Interests 20 Neomodernity 20 Conservancy and Development Ethics 26 Practice ethics 28 With Sustainable and Ethical Intent 37 2 Knowledge Power Outcomes: The Theory Fundamentals 39 How Planning Works 49 Traditional-Lineal Planning 53 The Radical-Multiplex Approach 58 Progressive Change 66 Part II Practice 71 3 Charter for Conservation with Development 73 Backgrounding 74 Foregrounding 79 Resource Exploitation and Discard Dynamics 86 vi Contents Socio-Environmentalism: The New Reality 90 The political ecology of scale shifts 96 Resource Guardianship: Principles into Practice 101 The Soft Pathways Matrix 107 The New Culture: Balanced Harmony 114 4 Growth Pattern Management 117 Multiplier Principles 120 Growth Pattern Information Needs 124 Data assembly and raw data analysis 125 Linkage and pattern analyses 129 Rural-urban understandings 132 Growth Management Basics 133 Project propagation (generation) 133 Risk assessment and risk management 139 Project implementation 148 Macro Practice Patterns 150 ‘Ownerships’ and ‘rights’ 151 Urban-rural growth patterning 156 Coastal zone management 163 Agriculture and forestry 166 Tourism 169 Unemployment alleviation 181 Waste disposal management 183 Growth Pattern Policy Directions 186 5 Urban Growth Management 188 Yesterday’s Solutions, Today’s Problems 189 Suburbia and Ex-urbia Costed 198 Urban Reforms: Options and Actions 203 Urban social arrangement and style 204 Ex-urban sprawl control 211 Small-town conservation with development 217 Water’s edge urbanization 221 ECO-village ideals 223 Raw land suburbanization 227 Urban retrofit compaction and clustering 238 Shopping as a lesiure activity 251 The Delivery of Outcome 257 Contents vii Balanced Urban Living 260 Appendix: Agenda 21 264 6 Tipping the Balance 269 The Ends 269 The Means 273 Within the academy 274 Trends and Changes: AConcluding Commentary 276 Bibliographical Retrospective 281 Notes 284 References 296 Index 319 List of Boxes 1.1 Terra psyche: the land settlement continuum 17 1.2 New-age pragmatics 22 1.3 Connecting philosophy to planning 27 1.4 Ethical canon for community transactions 34 2.1 Traditional and radical formats: an explication of theory 47 2.2 Radical-multiplex skills set 62 3.1 The ever-changing scene 85 3.2 Resources within ecosystems 92 3.3 Global population and energy use 94 3.4 Soft pathways 98 3.5 Sustainable co-dependency 100 3.6 Kicking the energy-use habit 102 3.7 Matrixfor conservation with development 108 4.1 Socio-ecological economics 120 4.2 Export and residentiary considerations relative to an agricultural region 126 4.3 Pattern data: a dump listing 127 4.4 Input–output patterns 130 4.5 Risk Impact Assessment (RIA): an agency perspective 144 4.6 Benefit-cost prognosis 147 4.7 Log Frame project implementation 149 4.8 Sustainable tourism policies 179 5.1 Urban social arrangement and style 205 5.2 Basic residential componentry 209 5.3 Suburban design-detail code 232 5.4 Compaction: an urban retrofit code 245 5.5 Mainstreet guidelines 253 5.6 Planning in action: the delivery of outcome 258 6.1 Easter Island – Earth Island 274

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