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Sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation Developments in environmental biology of fishes 17 SeriesEditor EUGENE K. BALON Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation Editors: VADIMJ. BIRSTEIN,JOHNR. WALDMAN &WILLIAM E. BEMIS Reprinted from Environmental biology of fishes, Volume 48 (1–4), 1997 withadditionofspeciesandsubjectindex KLUWERACADEMICPUBLISHERS NEW YORK / BOSTON / DORDRECHT /LONDON / MOSCOW eBookISBN: 0-306-46854-9 Print ISBN: 0-792-34517-7 ©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow Print ©1997 Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers New York All rights reserved No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher Created in the United States of America Visit Kluwer Online at: http://kluweronline.com and Kluwer's eBookstore at: http://ebooks.kluweronline.com Contents Preludeto sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation byE.K.Balon 9-11 Sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation: anintroduction byW.E.Bemis,V.J.Birstein&J.R.Waldman 13-14 LeoSemenovichBerg andthebiology ofAcipenseriformes:adedication byV.J.Birstein&W.E.Bemis 15-22 Part1:Diversityandevolutionofsturgeonsandpaddlefishes Anoverview of Acipenseriformes byW.E.Bemis,E.K.Findeis&L.Grande 25-71 Osteology andphylogeneticinterrelationships of sturgeons (Acipenseridae) byE.K. Findeis 73-126 Phylogenyof the Acipenseriformes:cytogeneticandmolecular approaches byV.J.Birstein,R. Hanner&R. DeSalle 127-155 Howmany speciesarethere within thegenusAcipenser? byV.J.Birstein & W.E.Bemis 157-163 Part2:Biologyandstatusreportsonsturgeonsandpaddlefishes Sturgeonrivers: anintroductiontoacipenseriformbiogeographyandlifehistory byW.E.Bemis&B.Kynard 167-183 Pastandcurrentstatusofsturgeons intheupperandmiddleDanubeRiver by K. Hensel&J. Holc^ik 185-200 Endangeredmigratory sturgeonsofthelower DanubeRiverandits delta byN. Bacalbasa-Dobrovici 20 1 -207 Presentstatus ofcommercial stocksofsturgeons in theCaspianSeabasin by R.P. Khodorevskaya, G.F. Dovgopol, O.L. Zhuravleva & A.D. Vlasenko 209-219 Speciesstructure,contemporarydistributionandstatusoftheSiberiansturgeon, Acipenser baerii by G.I. Ruban 221-230 EndemicsturgeonsoftheAmurRiver: kaluga,Husodauricus,andAmursturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii by M.L. Krykhtin & V.G. Svirskii 231-239 Biology,fisheries,and conservation ofsturgeonsandpaddlefishinChina byQ.Wei,F.Ke,J.Zhang,P.Zhuang,J.Luo,R.Zhou &W.Yang 241-255 Biology and life history of Dabry’s sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus, in the Yangtze River byP.Zhuang,F.Ke,Q.Wei,X.He&Y.Cen 257-264 Observations on the reproductive cycle of cultured white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus by S.I. Doroshov, G.P. Moberg & J.P. Van Eenennaam 265-278 Contemporary status of the North American paddlefish, Polyodon spathula byK. Graham 279-289 Lifehistoryandstatusoftheshovelnosesturgeon,Scaphirhynchusplatorynchus byK.D. Keenlyne 291-298 The status anddistribution oflake sturgeon,Acipenserfulvescens,inthe Canadianprovinces ofManitoba,OntarioandQuebec: ageneticperspective byM.M.Ferguson&G.A.Duckworth 299 309 — 6 LakesturgeonmanagementintheMenomineeRiver,aWisconsin-Michiganboundarywater by T.F. Thuemler 311-317 Lifehistory,latitudinalpatterns,andstatusoftheshortnosesturgeon,Acipenserbrevirostrum by B. Kynard 319-334 StatusandmanagementofAtlantic sturgeon,Acipenseroxyrinchus,inNorthAmerica by T.I.J. Smith & J.P. Clugston 335-346 Atlantic and shortnose sturgeons of the Hudson River: common and divergent life history attributes byM.B. Bain 347-358 Biological characteristics of the European Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, as the basis for a restoration program in France byP.Williot,E.Rochard,G. Castelnaud,T.Rouault,R. Brun,M.Lepage&P.Elie 359-370 Part3: Controversies,conservationandsummary Sturgeons and the Aral Sea ecological catastrophe by I. Zholdasova 373-380 Threatened fishes of the world Pseudoscaphirhynchusspp. (Acipenseridae) byV.J.Birstein 381-383 Molecular analysis in the conservation of sturgeons and paddlefish byI.I.Wirgin,J.E.Stabile&J.R.Waldman 385-398 Sensitivity of North American sturgeons and paddlefish to fishing mortality byJ. Boreman 399-405 Alternatives for the protection and restoration of sturgeons and their habitat byR.C.P.Beamesderfer&R.A.Farr 407-417 Threatenedfishesoftheworld: Scaphirhynchus suttkusiWilliams&Clemmer,1991, (Acipenseridae) byR.L.Mayden&B.R.Kuhajda 418-419 Threatened fishesof the world:Scaphirhynchusalbus(Forbes& Richardson,1905) (Acipenseridae) byR.L.Mayden&B.R.Kuhajda 420-421 Sturgeon poaching and black market caviar: a case study by A. Cohen 423-426 Thethreatenedstatusofacipenseriformfishes: asummary by V.J. Birstein, W.E. Bemis & J.R.Waldman 427-435 Speciesandsubjectindex,byAliceG.Klingener 437-444 Thisvolumeisdedicatedtothememoryof Leo SemenovichBerg LogodesignbyWilliamE.Bemisinspiredbytheholarcticdistributionofsturgeonsandpaddlefishes Numaeis Anishnabe for sturgeon, a painting by the Chippewas ofNawash artist Adrian Nadjiwon of Cape Croker, LakeHuron:“InthepaintingIwantedtodepictthebalancethatoneexistedbetweenmyancestorsandthesturgeon (thesturgeonbeingsymbolicofallthefishspeciesthattheOldPeoplesubsistedon)withthefishinglinesymbolising aspirituallinkandbalancingpointbetweenthemanandthesturgeon”(1992). Portraits of three juvenile sturgeons which originated from the Black Sea stock bred at the Propa-Gen International Aquaculture Produc- tion R & D and Trading, Komadi, Hungary: the top photograph shows a 71 cm armored form of the Russian sturgeon, Acipenser guelden- staedtii: the middle photograph shows a 77 cm naked form of A. gueldenstaedtii (note its smooth skin and absence of scutes): and the bottom photograph is of a 54 cm A. persicus Photographs by Paul Vecei. May 1996. Environmental Biology of Fishes48:9-12, 1997. © 1997KluwerAcademic Publishers. Printed inthe Netherlands. Prelude to sturgeonbiodiversity andconservation Soaring Eagle, you have angered Great Sturgeon, and he has taken your son because you took too manyfishfromthe lake. Joe McLellan (1993) in‘Nanabosho, SoaringEagleandtheGreatSturgeon’,PammicanPublications,Winnipeg. Itgavemegreatpleasuretohelpwiththe publicationofthisvolume.Theelusivebeastsitdealswithsustainedmyenthusi- asm in the early days ofwork on the Danube River. Already then, 40 years ago. sturgeons were so rare1 in the middle Danube (Figure1),thatIhadtoshiftmyattentiontothewildcarp2.3whichhavefollowedsincemanyofthesturgeonsinto oblivion. Figure1.SpecimenofAcipensergueldenstaedtii 35cmlongcaughton30.7.1967 intheDanubeRiver near Radvan^(river km 1749). Originaldrawingby Miriam Baradlai1. OftenIwasstandingontheshore,where about100years ago,theViennese courthadtheirmilitaryfirecannonballsat giant beluga, Huso huso, and other sturgeon species ascending the river to spawn4. I was dreaming of arresting the present destruction5.6 and ofrebuilding the past (Figure 2).I envied Marsilius7 whowas able to witness here the processing of caviar (Figure 3) which I was privileged to spoon up in Russia only 30 years, no, 270 years later, and became addicted to. 1Balon, E.K. 1968. D∨alší nález mlade Acipenser güldenstaedti colchicus Marti, 1940 v c^eskoslovenskom úsekuDunaja(Afurtherdiscov- eryofajuvenile RussiansturgeonintheCzechoslovakpartoftheDanube).Ac. Rer.Natur.Mus.Nat.Slov. (Bratislava)14:95-100. 2Balon.E.K.1974.Domesticationofthecarp CyprinuscarpioL.Royal OntarioMus.LifeSci.Misc.Publ.,Toronto.37pp. 3Balon.E.K.1995.Thecommoncarp,Cyprinuscarpio:itswildorigin,domesticationinaquaculture,andselectionascolorednishikigoi. GuelphIchthyologyReviews3:1-55. 4Hensel, K. & J. Holc∨ik. 1997. Past and current status of sturgeons in the upper and middle Danube River. Env. Biol. Fish. 48 (this volume). 5Balon,E.K.1967.VývojichtyofaunyDunaja,jejsúc∨asnýstavapokusoprognózuód’alšichzmienpovýstavbevodnýchdiel (Evolution of the Danube ichthyofauna. its recent state and an attempt to predict further changes after the construction of the planned hydro-electric power stations and diversion schemes). Biologické práce 13: 1-121 + 24 plates. 6Balon, E.K. 1968. Einfluß des Fischfangsaufdie Fischgemeinschaften der Donau. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl. Donauforschung3) 34: 228–249. 7 Marsilius. A.F.C. 1726. Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus, observationibus geographicis, astronomicis, hydrographicis, historicis, physicis perlustratus et in sexTomos digestus. Hagae Comitum, Amstelodami.

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