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The past and future of the Testing the strength of weak Target RNA–guided RNA and protein monkeypox virus social ties cleavage by Craspase pp. 1252 & 1261 pp. 1256 & 1304 p. 1278 $15 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 science.org GROUNDWATER OF LIFE Subsurface capture of seasonal rainfall supports Bangladeshi agriculture pp. 1258 & 1315 “CST® research products perform – beautifully.” TheprecisecontributionofneuroinflammationtoAlzheimer’sDisease(AD)progressionispoorlyunderstood.Microgliaarelikely toplayanimportantroleininitiatingandmaintainingneuroinflammatoryresponsesthatcontributetoADetiology.CathepsinD isenrichedinmicroglia,particularlyinthecontextofdisease.Thisconfocalimmunofluorescentanalysisofbrainfromanamyloid mousemodelofADshowsCathepsinD(E7Z4L)XP®RabbitmAb#88239(green),Iba1/AIF-1(E4O4W)XPRabbitmAb#36618 (red),GFAP(GA5)MousemAb#3657(cyan),andβ-Amyloid(D54D2)XPRabbitmAb#35363(blue). We hear it from researchers all the time. They trust CST antibodies and other research tools to work the way they’re supposed to. Every time. And to provide them with results that are clear, unambiguous and reproducible. As scientists ourselves, nothing less is acceptable. www.cellsignal.com ©2022CellSignalingTechnology,Inc.Allrightsreserved. | ForResearchUseOnly.NotForUseInDiagnosticProcedures. | 22-BCH-61229-AUG22 Antibodiesfor Immunoassay Customs& Application Industry-leading Research Kits Services Workflow Validation Solutions Process 0916Product.indd 1238 9/8/22 7:06 AM CONTENTS FEATURES 1252 Moving target The global monkeypox outbreak is giving the virus an unprecedented opportunity to adapt to humans. Will it change for the worse? By K. Kupferschmidt 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOLUME 377 • ISSUE 6612 PERSPECTIVE p. 1261 INSIGHTS PERSPECTIVES 1256 Weak ties, failed tries, and success A large-scale study provides a causal test for a cornerstone of social science By D. Wang and B. Uzzi REPORT p. 1304 1258 The “water machine” of Bengal A data-driven and policy-supported strategic use of aquifers for irrigation is needed to maximize their benefits By A. Mukherji REPORT p. 1315 1259 Replication timing and genetic instability Synchronized activation of DNA replication origins induces genetic instability in lymphoma By M. Méchali RESEARCH ARTICLE p. 1277 1261 Monkeypox: The consequences of neglecting a disease, anywhere A disease anywhere can spread everywhere, if neglected By O. Tomori and D. Ogoina 1252 & 1261 NEWS STORY p. 1252 1263 Loyal gut microbes Bacterial strains in the gut microbiota diversified as humans spread across the globe NEWS 1247 Polio returns in rich countries, By A. H. Moeller but big outbreaks are unlikely REPORT p. 1328 As New York state declares an CE emergency, experts are far 1264 How Saturn got its tilt and its rings OUR IN BRIEF more worried about a resurgence The destruction of a hypothetical moon may CIENCE S 1242 News at a glance iBny l Lo.w R-oinbceortmse countries hReESlpE eAxRpClHai nA RthTIeC oLrEi gpi.n 1 2o8f 5both By M. El Moutamid S/S NFECTION I1N24 D4 EEPurToHpe ’s energy crisis hits 1im24p8e rRile Gcroeradt sSaalilnt iLtayk aend low water P12O6L6 IRCiYsk Fs OofR dUeMco upling from China OR I science hard Drought spurs efforts to restore on low-carbon technologies NTRE F Supercomputing and accelerator centers sBhy rEin. Kkiinntgis lcahke’s water supplies For most technologies, the cure is likely worse CE struggle with surging gas and electricity than the disease By M. R. Davidson et al. N AGENCY prices By J. Kwan 1m2i5s0si oNnA tSaAk’se sa satimer oid deflection BOOKS ET AL. O 1245 Private venture tackles Long Covid, CTI Target’s structure will sway 1270 Whom is real science for? OTE aims to test drugs soon outcome of upcoming Skip the metaphors—physics needn’t be diluted H PR Initiative to explore whether coronavirus test collision, simulations show for nonexperts to achieve real understanding HEALT lingers in patients By J. Couzin-Frankel By Z. Savitsky By A. E. Motter N/ PODCAST PPLETO 1s2e4xu6a Ul h.Sa.r Aansstamrecntitc Program has ignored 1251 Reviewers award higher marks 1m2a7n1a Dgeorsi aaln ddi vdeorns’ittsy for achieving A AZEL Decades of complaints have gone unheeded when a paper’s author is famous A pair of sociologists turn to data to determine O: by NSF and contractors managing operations, “Matthew effect” is powerful, unusually how to diversify organizations’ upper ranks HOT employees say By J. Mervis large study finds By J. Brainard By E. H. Chang P SCIENCE science.org 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 1239 0916TOC_15819186.indd 1239 9/13/22 6:01 PM CONTENTS LETTERS 1285 Gas giant planets 1272 A genomics revolution in amphibian Loss of a satellite could explain Saturn’s 1354 taxonomy By C. Dufresnes and D. Jablonski obliquity and young rings J. Wisdom et al. PERSPECTIVE p. 1264 1272 Comprehensive support for diversity in STEM By T. Mourad and G. Middendorf 1290 Signal transduction Lysosomal GPCR-like 1273 Ecological footprint of Russia’s protein LYCHOS signals cholesterol Ukraine invasion By M. Zheleznyak et al. sufficiency to mTORC1 H. R. Shin et al. 1273 In memoriam 1298 Structural biology Structural basis for strychnine RESEARCH activation of human bitter 1319 Quantum simulation taste receptor TAS2R46 W. Xu et al. Direct geometric probe of singularities in band structure C. D. Brown et al. REPORTS IN BRIEF 1323 Organic chemistry 1304 Social networks 1274 From Science and other journals Halogen-atom and group transfer reactivity A causal test of the strength of enabled by hydrogen tunneling weak ties K. Rajkumar et al. RESEARCH ARTICLES T. Constantin et al. PERSPECTIVE p. 1256 1277 Cancer genetics 1328 Microbiome DNA replication timing directly regulates 1311 Evolution Codiversification of gut microbiota with the frequency of oncogenic chromosomal Exceptional preservation of organs in humans T. A. Suzuki et al. translocations M. Peycheva et al. Devonian placoderms from the Gogo PERSPECTIVE p. 1263 RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARY; FOR FULL TEXT: lagerstätte K. Trinajstic et al. DOI.ORG/10.1126/SCIENCE.ABJ5502 1333 Nanophotonics PERSPECTIVE p. 1259 1315 Groundwater Few-cycle vacuum squeezing in The Bengal Water Machine: Quantified nanophotonics R. Nehra et al. 1278 CRISPR freshwater capture in Bangladesh Craspase is a CRISPR RNA-guided, M. Shamsudduha et al. RNA-activated protease C. Hu et al. PERSPECTIVE p. 1258; PODCAST DEPARTMENTS 1241 Editorial High seas treaty within reach By K. M. Gjerde et al. 1354 Working Life The meaning of home By D. Boglaienko ON THE COVER The irrigation of rice fields by smallholder farmers in Bangladesh, like the one in Sylhet pictured here, has transformed this densely populated, once famine-prone land to a food- R secure nation over the past three decades. CKE This type of agriculture depends on ground- UBE NE water withdrawals made RT possible by subsurface BE O recharge by the highly X; R U seasonal rainfall. This D RE cfaoy cochdlea p nsrguoisdntuga cicntlsiiom inrar uitgena.d tSeeerde RK TIMES/ O pages 1258 and 1315. W Y Photo: K. M. Asad HE NE 1263 & 1328 N/T A DE Gordon Research Conferences................1338 M Science Careers .......................................1343 ADA HT) G RI SpieChtnhmaoChdrnsoaIievtdEunarilNdiggigtnuuheeCgas t(Eo lahpr fmav(eu aIat bSCeedillmsSaoidc bpNorabelynte e0sri orrifsgs0ern:ohhq3 ANmitu6p loCel,- o .bs8li wen4ta0.ac8 c 47Crl4kua5 awi4dns)n6e iscniaeu0segdk e )pC is saspue,.un asgbnb ciridtlvsaiiee sicatnrnher tg(ics eWpC e odwtC.ailo odiwsCtrn hhage) in,;(eGn w1bdkgS2u wltnT yolmewk nao w.orv,cn a Dnaoa tiFtCdeplhar yd,oisb darr)nlienea:g srd y$hues, t1a peq.e6cdsoux5o dneac mi (sentr$tiepd.o. 7qT tnA84 uhal-u aeeadlt ss mliihlgtdto, oiae cwtGri nalaeiiSzttnceeiTafgckdi tco #o i aiuotf1notfnn2ii coDt5 s tennu4eos ubc8c .r mseo8Cecmd1opbr2epirebp2 oyfreto..dr irPPori,ug unoSbhcb)scyte.lt i ©i eDmtcmnhao 2aceatm0iest oAe t2einesrm2ssi rat0 :beiMl c0 Syrf oai3 iectnri6hnla s iAe-dnnt8 i gAt tc0Aeurhme7rstanie5seonam.orn gSlic caeeocialn ar ioens ttpfun i ANaoebcsdrunesssdm coifosrroncbei ipraisnea ttsldr ithou iet1oenos0xne e6AA( fd5u9Aod 1n6rivAn d2itaSs hte4ns,her .cuP e PAc.ee ORirdmsr.ice) vnB:eaua to$ndmnex2tecd s r92eo t’ims16naf2 n1 GSet;7c hucnF8eeiito,des oWr Uennef c a.tioSSgoestcn. h,PAf i 1eaipen.2nlrolgi0icnsote0otgd.an iTwNgc, haeDietel h wCeL tix ni i2Yttte lro0tearhr0 a:Sek t9AC ufA0iarIrEve–i rae N6 ausnnC1ssu7diEes8e iti,p.ns SNdr asoeiWen vrliveigv,s egelWieroiras-aynctl:s ses oh$ rpopei9efnyd 8ct g sht.i taraeFoall iidenzCrsees,o td:mDp c$ iyCanl1arr d5i2skge s0e hox,a 0tfea c Ats0ihhr.c5m ept. AlcaPuaiAesl,nA rss iSbohtued.i pDd iocpeoabinmnltstag, e im aansnnetaidddcil CREDITS: (LEFT TO 1240 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 science.org SCIENCE 0916TOC_15819186.indd 1240 9/13/22 6:01 PM EDITORIAL High seas treaty within reach T he ocean is Earth’s greatest climate mitigator, but empowering participation in decision-making, and en- Kristina M. Gjerde it cannot do its work without biodiversity. Yet, abling sufficient capacity, technology, and financial re- is the senior high accelerating climate change, unsustainable fish- sources. Richer nations have yet to commit to delivering seas adviser of the ing, and widespread plastic and other pollutants, the capacity building, technology, and funds necessary Ocean Team at the combined with increased resource demands, are to assist developing nations, such as small island states, International Union threatening life throughout our global ocean. to fully participate in the treaty. Facilitating individual for Conservation of This is particularly acute in the two-thirds of the and collective responses to stresses on the global ocean, Nature, Cambridge, ocean (the high seas and seabed below) located beyond which these less technologically equipped nations did MA, USA. kgjerde@ national boundaries, and as such, no state can solve little to cause, is essential. eip.com.pl these problems alone. Since 2018, member states of The next several months offer a narrowing window the United Nations have been crafting an international to find solutions. The treaty is an opportunity to foster Harriet treaty to protect high-seas biodiversity and to ensure mutually beneficial partnerships that acquire scientific Harden-Davies that human pressures are kept to a level that sustains information and leverage technology to monitor cu- is the director this variety. Last month, the fifth and supposedly final mulative impacts on the global ocean. As the ocean is of the Nippon session of the UN Intergovernmental Conference fell interconnected, all nations have the right and respon- Foundation Ocean short of this goal. Unfortunately, disagreements on sibility to act as stewards of the ocean commons now fundamental issues meant that nego- and for future generations. The cur- Voices Programme, tiators ran out of time. Achieving a rent treaty draft offers an innovative University of timely treaty requires resuming the pathway for this collective steward- Edinburgh, “…at risk are dialogue as soon as possible with ship: strategic environmental as- Edinburgh Climate more visible public and political sup- sessments of marine ecosystems and Change Institute, vital ecosystem port to surmount remaining hurdles. activities that are regionally focused, Edinburgh, UK. These little-known negotiations at an ecologically meaningful scale. harriet.harden- services that should compel a sense of urgency That is, by bringing together inter- [email protected] because at risk are vital ecosystem ested states, scientific institutions, keep Earth’s services that keep Earth’s climate sectoral organizations (such as bod- Kahlil Hassanali livable. Existing regional and global ies for regional fisheries, interna- is a research officer organizations for managing fishing, climate livable.” tional shipping, and seabed mining), at the Institute shipping, or deep-sea mining lack a financial institutions, civil society, of Marine Affairs, global focus on marine biodiversity and other stakeholders, these as- Chaguaramas, that the new treaty could provide. sessments could forge a common Trinidad and Tobago. The good news is that despite the delay, negotiators understanding while also redressing gaps in capacity. khassanali@ima. made meaningful progress. This includes accepting key The results could guide coherent climate-resilient man- gov.tt principles and approaches to advance ecosystem-based agement that includes networks of protected areas for management, recognizing roles for science as well as safeguarding life in a dynamic ocean. traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local Scientists can play a role by calling on world leaders communities, and agreeing to establish key institutions to promptly produce a treaty that will inject science- such as regular meetings of the states parties to main- based decision-making, equity, and stewardship into tain progress. Yet negotiators face many daunting di- the heart of how the vast majority of Earth’s ocean is vides. They have to find an acceptable balance between managed. New activities, from geoengineering to deep- state autonomy and collective action to effectively sea mining, are being proposed to address the climate manage marine protected areas, review environmental emergency that could imperil high-seas biodiversity. impact assessments, and hold each other accountable Nations will require sound assessment and accountable for harm. Also debated is how to more equitably share decision-making processes so that such new approaches benefits derived from marine genetic resources. Poten- do not cause more harm than good. By finalizing the tially valuable genetic material from marine life has treaty soon, ideally in 2022, world leaders can further prospective applications in agriculture, industry, and reaffirm faith in the power of global multilateral pro- biomedicine and can inform research, assessments, and cesses and steer all countries together through the chal- monitoring of the ocean. lenges of a changing ocean and planet. Equity—both within and across generations—is at the –Kristina M. Gjerde, Harriet Harden-Davies, heart of sharing the benefits of marine genetic material, Kahlil Hassanali 10.1126/science.ade8437 SCIENCE science.org 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 1241 0916Editorial_15823959.indd 1241 9/13/22 5:59 PM NEWS “They need to acknowledge their role in spreading disinformation, and choose a different path.” University of California, Santa Barbara, energy policy expertLeah Stokes, to Grist about her research on utility companies’ role in climate change denialism. observation that jibes with previous predic- IN BRIEF tions that the star’s looping magnetic field Edited by Shraddha Chakradhar lines sometimes crash into rarer straight ones, causing straight lines of emanating POLICY plasma to develop a telltale kink known as a switchback. Scientists had previously seen First ARPA-H director named evidence of switchbacks in magnetic field data, but the images of them reported last P resident Joe Biden has picked Renee Wegrzyn, an applied week in The Astrophysical Journal Letters are a first. The findings support the idea that biologist with a background in industry and government, to slower solar winds arise from switchbacks in head his new agency for biomedical innovation, the Advanced looping magnetic field lines. The work could Research Projects Agency for Health (ARPA-H). Wegrzyn, 45, help scientists better predict the impact of served 4 years as a program manager in the biological tech- powerful solar storms on Earth, which can wreak havoc on communications systems nologies office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects and navigational equipment. Agency, the model for ARPA-H, where she led programs in synthetic biology and gene editing. She is currently vice president of business Racism’s effects in real time development at the Boston-based Ginkgo Bioworks, which focuses on cell engineering; she also has expertise in biosecurity. ARPA-H, which RACISM | A study testing an innovative way to assess racism’s impact on health has a $1 billion budget this year, was created by Congress in March has found stress hormone levels in saliva to develop cutting-edge medical technologies and is currently part of spike almost immediately after someone the National Institutes of Health. experiences a racist interaction. In a pilot study, researchers had 12 Black participants in the United States collect their saliva four times a day over Cancer treatment tackles lupus The Sun’s kinky magnetism 4 days. Over the same period, participants used a phone app to record perceived IMMUNOTHERAPY | Suggesting a new ASTRONOMY | New images from the discrimination and microaggressions— way to battle certain autoimmune condi- European Solar Orbiter may shed light on such as being mistaken for a service tions, five people with lupus have been mysterious shifts in the Sun’s magnetic field worker because of their race. Levels of successfully treated with engineered and could help explain why the solar wind cortisol—a hormone released during immune cells. A team in Germany reports blows at two different speeds. In March, emotional distress—increased in the this week in Nature Medicine that the the spacecraft spotted an S-shaped vortex participants’ saliva the morning after they patients—four women and a man who of ejecting plasma in the Sun’s corona—an reported racial discrimination events, had serious organ complications from the the team reports this week in PLOS ONE. 022) aaTnuhtteio gsiemtrnam rteeugcneye,p wtdoihrsi ecTah sc ewe—lal sr( eCacApeRpivr-eTodv) etcdhh ei5mr ayeperayi.rc s Mesaffimeccreto ,da iganygc.r rTeeshasseiio nsntgus cdsoeyre tamiuseothdl o lterovs ,eh llaes vdte hb eay vfaesrtye r NI ET AL. (2 O acagno cienr st hoef Uthnei tiemdm Sutantee ss yfostre pme’os pBle c ewlilsth, SNouorhsiynugn, sNaaym th aet sYtarelen Ugtnhi voefr tshiteyi’rs sStcrhatoeogly o f D D. TELL N involves isolating T cells, genetically modify- lies in being able to follow participants in S A M ing them outside the body to target specific real time and analyze their hormone levels A cluepllus—s—ina nthdi sin cfaussei ntgh et hBe mce lblsa cthk aitn s. pAullr five tshimroiulagrh sotuutd tiehse. day and are planning other METIS TE & patients tolerated the treatment well, and UI tkhidenire iym ppraoibrleedm osr, giamnp fruonvcetdi oonr, rseuscohlv aesd . Women faculty paid less RBITER/E O The patients also discontinued other drugs SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY | Echoing previ- OLAR they were taking, such as immune suppres- ous findings, women faculty members, A/S sants. The researchers note that although even those with a stellar publication AS N promising, CAR-T therapy needs to be stud- record, are paid less than their male A & ied in more people with lupus over time to The Sun’s magnetic fluxes might help explain the colleagues, a new study has found. After GE: ES ensure it’s safe and effective. solar wind’s different speeds. examining publicly available salary data MA I 1242 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 science.org SCIENCE 0916NewsInBrief_15817875.indd 1242 9/13/22 5:57 PM IN FOCUS Among this year’s Wildlife Photographer of the Year winners is this portrait of a southern right whale calf off New Zealand’s coast. After circling and inspecting photographer Richard Robinson, the calf reportedly returned for a second look. New Zealand’s right whale population had been hunted to near-extinction, but recent protections have helped revive it from a group with 13 breeding females to more than 2000 animals. The contest is developed and produced by the Natural History Museum in London. for more than 2300 tenured or tenure- near the places on the list. “Having our BY THE NUMBERS track professors who work in science, collections information reflect diversity Dug up and deforested technology, engineering, and math fields and inclusion values is important,” says at 17 research-intensive U.S. universi- Carol Butler, assistant director for col- Just four countries accounted for 81% of ties, researchers identified a gender pay lections for the Smithsonian Institution’s tropical forest loss caused by industrial gap that persists even after accounting National Museum of Natural History. mining as of 2019, according to a study for factors such as the average pay in a The museum will change hundreds of published this week in the Proceedings of the department and an individual’s h-index, a instances in its online database, mostly National Academy of Sciences. The largest metric that reflects how many papers they for plant specimens collected at sites with contributor, Indonesia, digs mainly coal, have published and how many times those the offensive names. DOI will continue to whereas others mine gold and aluminum ore. papers have been cited. Among faculty accept suggestions for other names that Forest losses have dropped 45% since 2014, members with a relatively high h-index of need changing. mainly because of declining prices for the 49, for instance, women were paid roughly mined materials and coal mining restrictions $6000 less per year than their male counter- Sexual assaults’ hidden costs in Indonesia. Overall, agriculture remains a parts. The authors of the study, which is in bigger cause of deforestation. 022) press at Scientometrics and available as a HEALTH CARE | People seeking emergency CREDITS: (PHOTO) © RICHARD ROBINSON/WILDLIFE PHOTOGRAPHER OF THE YEAR; (GRAPHIC) K. FRANKLIN/SCIENCE; (DATA) S. GILJUM ET AL., PNAS, 119 (38) E2118273119 (2 pueUGIufaUftttiuunirihhnxnrnpspErono.ceaateesdOSdddnmiel ptmtdtu UeaaGsr .oer cN r i ttdiaR.isdtafooeesnSnioshaoAc r nnl.e tStdtrm eo Pta sghgi( toraerevn HiDao ee sedqtntegerYt vliaO hue 6ueretwseA Rberh isI5or|rm tae m)e.e 0on gynU fdssS Tl a romafeneea.i peaSphnrmfsmraesecpe e. ise rteN fracfnoeh. Gc odnae wakDrsahMtirct ene,scs.tfeeaG uo,o i ssu Fiep rftvClalpecrveeshkytoae trtaeyeade u arg e eDbr cuAtutenn,pi eeui micpmrepmsmki anmraa1vba lyseees0alleeeya .o,n st H rr0n Saw vbc cttsimag0usha eocuiieoc et arldamecetsilfrn vntl e o munofaaaetemcs ilhgsns wlyanil bnsstee,gi,edd oemoto csa ewtt,ir ,mtm hsen teie-ieehlgednel ss en cbLdv1inwhaposEwwshn6etaivreeeiieonrheuotgsx %re opaoigsr bulodeuhrtbrpeaeekl e a uryaelaoyn erfaliy a,gseroslnt fn tkrc netpdet m hlv$egietdhf lx.cuenachri o ,3 eeudoe SanohbJtgowr7n al ituomem lea0asles htiiluodcnserpnnsln0 eeheyvwgr hrerdc.gawdla in e eoaeepa-sP esrispiahiarpd—issc,xrnct,t l o alsao ahepwhyssoc tmardulorge heoef atiu1atf xnl cnnraimi1ti rtm lnushsMoaoyh3es tn 2geeaaenn d ,owef b0pe0 d lostratfr wtd hee0da gt 1u eahtmiiyie 9yeee0oi nsnnpced t,k s lsm amidhidaacfyeo.n anroyiuuri a mne u’nesve trttenrtdnhdu .i li hxre ascthTd i aTibe$p resoavucauhmtdgjhcxe4enral evaeeona usrer5ladce tln iaurNyea0hsytb o elghc gr al 0yeneiftaw aayeilre o w ,lclrtl g,hl ahs. shyloe eoalsoo ent — r h d Deforestation within mining areas (km)2 11106844220000000000000002000–OSGBI0nurhtd4ahraoziennnirlaa2em0si0ea5–09 2010–14 2015–19 SCIENCE science.org 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 1243 0916NewsInBrief_15817875.indd 1243 9/13/22 5:57 PM Energy budgets at the Dutch IN DEPTH Low-Frequency Array are stretched to the breaking point. EUROPE Europe’s energy crisis hits science hard Supercomputing and accelerator centers struggle with surging gas and electricity prices By Jacklin Kwan COVID-19 pandemic. Power stations that had bigger concern. If supplies are restricted, the been shut down could not ramp up in time to facility may have to shut down again, for up S oon after Jessica Dempsey became di- meet renewed demand, says Jonathan Stern, to 6 months—which would not only curtail rector of the Netherlands Institute for who studies natural gas at the Oxford Insti- ongoing experiments for hundreds of users, Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) in De- tute for Energy Studies. Russia’s invasion of but also delay calls for future ones, he says. cember 2021, she was forced to focus Ukraine in February worsened the situation. “So, you’re effectively losing not 6 months, not on the stars, but on the electric bill. Sanctions and Russian retaliation crimped but maybe 12, maybe even 18 months.” ASTRON operates the Low-Frequency supplies of Russian natural gas, which gener- There’s a similar concern at DESY, Ger- Array (LOFAR), which relies on large com- ates electricity and heats buildings, pushing many’s largest accelerator center. DESY has puter clusters to process radio astronomy European gas prices to more than 10 times bought enough energy in advance to last into data. They consume about 2000 megawatt- their average historical values. 2023 but might not be able to use those sup- hours per year—the equivalent of 800 house- Early science casualties came in January, plies if the German government imposes na- holds. When Dempsey sought to renew even before the Ukraine war, when Lumius, tional energy restrictions, says Wim Leemans, ASTRON’s energy contracts this summer, she an energy contractor in the Czech Repub- who leads DESY’s accelerator programs. was shocked to find costs had tripled from lic, declared bankruptcy, driving up energy Leemans says DESY is exploring options 2021 levels. She now plans to seek emergency prices for many Czech universities and re- to run its machines at lower energies. For energy funding from the Dutch government; search facilities. IT4Innovations, a national example, it could turn down its synchrotron, without it, she may have to scale back obser- supercomputing center, was compelled to a circular particle accelerator that produces vations. “It’s certainly an existential crisis if run its most powerful supercomputer at one- bright x-rays for imaging proteins and mate- these [price] increases continue,” she says. third of its capacity—creating delays for the rials, so that it only generates lower energy Surging energy prices are hitting Europe 1500 users who used it for climate modeling “soft” x-rays. That way it could continue to hard—and not just households. Institutes and drug discovery. ELI Beamlines, a Czech serve some users, he says. But its two large that operate energy-hungry supercomputers, facility that hosts high-power laser beams, linear accelerators, used to produce laserlike accelerators, and laser beamlines are also had to shut down operations for a few weeks. pulses of x-ray light, would need to be shut struggling—and may be harbingers for the By May, the Czech government had agreed down completely if the restrictions are se- rest of science. If prices continue to soar this to bail out both facilities until the end of vere. They rely on superconducting modules fall and winter, “The impact for science is 2023, but their fate remains uncertain. that need constant power-hungry cooling, N going to be significant,” says Martin Freer, a Roman Hveˇzda, ELI Beamlines deputy direc- Leemans says. “We cannot say, ‘Well, we’re O R nuclear physicist who directs the University tor, worries the government will declare a only going to run some parts of the machine.’” R/AST of Birmingham’s energy institute. state of emergency, which could restrict the Reducing operations would hurt impor- OFA The primary cause of the crisis is a rebound gas the facility needs to heat its buildings. tant research, he adds. During the pandemic, O: L from an economic slowdown during the But electricity to power the beamlines is the vaccinemaker BioNTech used DESY’s x-ray HOT P 1244 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 science.org SCIENCE 0916NID_15809985.indd 1244 9/13/22 5:58 PM NEWS facilities to reveal how the SARS-CoV-2 virus COVID-19 uses its surface protein, spike, to dock with Private venture tackles Long human cells. Other DESY researchers study materials used in solar panels and batteries. “It will have ramifications for slowing down Covid, aims to test drugs soon innovations, right at the moment when we need them the most,” Leemans says. Big legacy machines may be hard to re- Initiative to explore whether coronavirus lingers in patients start after a shutdown, adds Anke-Susanne Müller, who heads accelerator physics and technology at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Turning off vacuums may dam- By Jennifer Couzin-Frankel NIH said in a statement it welcomes the age delicate systems, stopping the flow of private initiative because “the public can water in cooling systems may cause corro- A new, privately funded venture an- only benefit from multiple research efforts.” sion, and older control electronics might nounced last week has recruited more However, NIH also called RECOVER “un- not turn on again. “If you suddenly switch than 20 top scientists and is pouring precedented” in scale and crucial to giving a component off, they might not easily come $15 million raised so far into Long researchers “a fighting chance at identifying back,” she says. Covid research. It plans to explore the underlying mechanisms of Long COVID.” CERN, the world’s largest particle physics whether lingering virus causes symp- LCRI was born after several patient ad- laboratory, in Switzerland, is also nervously toms and to launch clinical trials as soon vocates with Long Covid and a professional watching the energy crisis unfold. CERN as possible. The scientist who spearheaded background in technology startups ap- purchases energy from the French grid years the Long Covid Research Initiative (LCRI), proached Proal early this year. “The enormity in advance, but now the concern is supply. microbiologist Amy Proal at the nonprofit of the problem really outweighs the size of “For this autumn, it is not a price issue, it’s PolyBio Research Foundation, says the goal the response,” says one, Henry Scott-Green, an availability issue,” says Serge Claudet, is to bring in $100 million, with half of that a Google product manager. The Centers for chair of CERN’s energy management panel. going to trials. Disease Control and Prevention estimates CERN uses 1.3 terawatt-hours of energy That sum will still be dwarfed by the behe- that nearly one in five people who contracted annually, roughly the equivalent of 250,000 moth RECOVER initiative at the National In- COVID-19 may have persistent symptoms, households. French energy authorities might stitutes of Health (NIH), which has more than which can include fatigue and brain fog. order CERN to not operate at times when $1 billion to fund Long Covid projects. But So far, LCRI has received $15 million from the electric grid is least stable—typically RECOVER has come under fire for its slug- investors including the Chan Soon-Shiong mornings and evenings. If frequent, those gish pace. Proal and others say new strategies Family Foundation; more commitments are requests could significantly reduce CERN’s are needed to distribute funds faster and to expected soon, Proal says. That first batch of data output, Claudet says. He says CERN embrace higher risk, higher payoff research. funding will support basic research by partic- may have to shut down smaller accelerators “We need a spark, we need a philan- ipating scientists. They will focus on whether in order to sustain the Large Hadron Col- thropic organization that has a risk toler- SARS-CoV-2 persists in Long Covid patients lider, the world’s most powerful accelerator. ance much greater than NIH,” says E. John and drives their symptoms. Studies include Even with energy procured for the short Wherry, an immunologist at the University a hunt for virus in intestinal, nerve, vascular, term, Claudet says CERN’s budgets will be of Pennsylvania who is part of LCRI and has and other tissues, including those procured stretched to pay for it. “This is a financial advised on RECOVER grants. Wherry com- from autopsies. Researchers will also dig concern because the energy prices on the pares NIH money to the bonds in an inves- deep into immune cell behavior that may re- market are very high, up to 10 times higher.” tor’s portfolio—“lumbering, slow-changing flect viral persistence. Stern predicts it will take at least 2 years things that give you the core of what you If virus lingers in the body, antiviral thera- for prices to fall to typical levels. Meanwhile, need.” But sometimes, “bonds are not going pies might reduce symptoms. Proal hopes the peak prices will depend on the severity of to be the tool you use,” he says. collaborative can soon begin clinical trials Europe’s winter and whether Asian coun- of such therapies, and that its scientists can tries bid against Europe for global supplies nail down the kind of biomarkers drug com- of liquid natural gas. Stern says it’s unclear panies crave for assessing a candidate treat- whether governments will keep research ment, such as immune signatures or other labs afloat, or prioritize aiding industry. measures in blood. Smaller research laboratories in universities NIH has said that it, too, expects to launch may be left to fend for themselves, he says. several Long Covid trials this fall. Those in- Freer warns of real-world consequences. volved in LCRI—and often RECOVER as well— He gives the example of accelerators at Bir- stress they want to complement each other, R POST miminaggihnagm— pthroagt rparmosd utchea ti swotooupleds efoitrh emr endieceadl nano t LwCoRrkI amt ecrmobsse rp uarnpdo sens.e uDraovpihdy sPiuotlorignisot, VE to be suspended, run at a loss, or pass on at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount N HE DE their costs to local hospitals. “It’s going to be Sinai who is also on a RECOVER sub- G/T a challenging time to get through,” he says. committee, has criticized the NIH initiative AN “It may mean, like with COVID, there will be but now hopes at least for détente. “No mat- H G C a hiatus in science programs.” j ter … what’s gone before, we need to swallow N OU our pride and work together.” j HY O: Jacklin Kwan is a science communications graduate HOT student at Imperial College London. An 18-year-old hospitalized with Long Covid. With reporting by Jocelyn Kaiser. P SCIENCE science.org 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 1245 0916NID_15809985.indd 1245 9/13/22 5:58 PM McMurdo Station “is the training ground for bad behavior,” according to a new report. momentum in the fall of 2019, after a rape survivor began sharing her story with col- leagues. The survivor’s courage, Grundberg says, “led to other people being brave, too. And so I sat in my office for days, and had person after person after person come and talk to me.” Grundberg and the Ice Allies compiled a folder of more than two dozen cases, which they forwarded to NSF after removing identi- fying features and getting the survivors’ per- mission. At the same time, the woman who had come forward about her rape started to receive unfavorable performance reviews. Within weeks she was fired and flown home. Those events compelled the Ice Allies to emerge from the shadows. In early 2020 they set up a table outside the dining room in the station’s main building to collect signatures on a petition urging NSF and the contractors to take sexual harassment more seriously. SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY It asked for better training, a clear channel for reporting assaults, psychological support U.S. Antarctic Program has for survivors, and evidence that disciplinary actions had been taken when warranted. “It ignored sexual harassment is inexcusable that such a forward-looking institution”—referring to NSF—has “fallen behind in taking such common-sense mea- sures,” the petition concluded. Decades of complaints have gone unheeded by NSF More than 200 people signed the petition. and contractors managing operations, employees say Stephanie Short, NSF’s head of Antarctic logistics, says that plea and other informal reports led NSF to commission the LDSS By Jeffrey Mervis Science about their frustration with how report. “It was important to us not only to sexual harassment has been allowed to fes- understand where the challenges were, but W hen a report last month docu- ter. “The unwritten rule ever since I started where we needed to focus resources to start mented pervasive sexual harass- in the 1990s has been to keep your mouth to address any challenges,” Short says. ment in the U.S. Antarctic Program, shut … or you will be blacklisted,” says Elaine Grundberg also kept her Leidos bosses many polar researchers and USAP Hood, who resigned in July after more than in the loop. “I wanted them to know that employees said it confirmed their 20 years in corporate communications for a [sexual harassment] is a rampant problem own experiences of being assaulted, series of lead contractors. down here,” she says. “And I wanted them to ignored, and sometimes punished for speak- The report, by Leading and Dynamic Ser- explain what they were doing to address it.” ing out. They also said the 25 August report vices and Solutions (LDSS), doesn’t quantify Grundberg says her barrage of emails and wasn’t the first time the National Science the extent of the sexual misconduct but of- phone calls led superiors to decide she wasn’t Foundation (NSF), which manages the pro- fers stark anecdotal accounts. “Every woman a team player. On 28 July 2020 Leidos sent gram through contracts to private companies I knew down there had an assault or harass- her a memo saying she was being terminated and commissioned the report, had been told ment experience,” one interviewee said. for “an inability to meet job expectations.” about the problem. Since 2019, an informal and fluctuating Leidos declined comment. But Grundberg’s “There are a million examples of guys be- network of USAP employees called the Ice former colleagues say her dismissal was a iZnisgm oabnn,o wxihoou sin a Anpdr iiln qauppitr hoeprr ijaotbe ,”a ss aITys m Joann-i Aatl lrieissk hinav heo ppuest othf ebirri njogbinsg a anbdo utht ecihr acnagree.e Irns hceupgte h leors sA. S“SCh beo wssaess ,b” eZloisvmeda nb ys aeyvse.rybody ex- AGES M athgreere a Ut .SM. cAMnutarrdcoti cS tbaatsioens,, atfhteer l1a3r gyeesatr so fw tihthe alododkietido nin ttoo swexaugae ld hiaspraasrsitmieesn atn, tdh eoyth hearv feo armlsos aftIenr aN mSFem roe lteoa saeldl etmhpe loLyDeSesS imrempoerdti, aLteeliy- GETTY I A/ the program. “But what really pissed me off of discrimination against USAP employees— dos’s Michael Raabe, director of the ASC CH was that leadership has spent the past 2 de- many of them young women in a culture contract, cited the company’s “deep con- RZE WA cades laughing it off and retaliating against dominated by older men. cern with the findings … and our commit- N O anybody who has tried to make things better.” One veteran member of McMurdo lead- ment to ensuring all its [job] sites are a RSS A ploZyiesems awn hiso ohnaev eo fr aect elneatlsyt fleofutr Lseeindioosr, etmhe- eGrrsuhnipd bwehrgo, bwehfroi einnd 2e0d1 t6h eb egcraomupe wASaCs Jaurleiae sTahfee manemd ow ienlvcoitmedin egm ppllaocyee efso tro e amvapillo tyheeems.”- KASZ L U lead contractor for the Antarctic Support station manager after many years working selves of “multiple reporting channels,” O: L Contract (ASC) awarded by NSF. All told in Antarctica. The group’s efforts gained including Raabe himself, an anonymous HOT P 1246 16 SEPTEMBER 2022 • VOL 377 ISSUE 6612 science.org SCIENCE 0916NID_15809985.indd 1246 9/13/22 5:58 PM

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