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Rehabilitation engineering applied to mobility and manipulation / Rory A. Cooper PDF

524 Pages·1995·10.138 MB·English
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Medical Science Series REHABILITATION ENGINEERING APPLIED TO MOBILITY AND MANIPULATION Rory A Cooper University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, USA and Highland Drive Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburg, USA Institute of Physics Publishing Bristol and Philadelphia @ IOP Publishing Ltd 1995 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Multiple copying is permitted in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency under the terms of its agreement with the Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals. British Library Cataloguing-in-PublicationD atu A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7503 0343 3 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationD ata Cooper, Rory A. Rehabilitation engineering applied to mobility and manipulation/ Rory A. Cooper p. cm. - - (Medical science series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7503-0343-3 1, Rehabilitation technology. 2. Human mechanics. 3. Wheelchairs. 4. Manipulation (Therapeutics). I. Title. 11. Series. [DNLM: 1. Rehabilitation- -instrumentation. 2. Biomedical Engineering. 3. Equipment Design. 4. Wheelchairs- -standards. WB 26 C778r 19951 RM950.C66 1995 617’.0.3- -dc20 DNLMDLC for Library of Congress 95-38066 CIP Published by Institute of Physics Publishing, wholly owned by The Institute of Physics, London Institute of Physics Publishing, Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BSI 6NX, UK US Editorial Office: Institute of Physics Publishing, The Public Ledger Building, Suite 1035, 150 South Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA Typeset in T@ using the IOP Bookmaker Macros Printed in the UK by J W Arrowsmith Ltd, Bristol BS3 2NT The Medical Science Series is the official book series of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) and the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) IFMBE The IFMBE was established in 1959 to provide medical and biological engineering with an international presence. The Federation has a long history of encouraging and promoting international cooperation and collaboration in the use of technology for improving the health and life quality of man. The IFMBE is an organization that is mostly an affiliation of national societies. Transnational organizations can also obtain membership. At present there are 33 national members with a total membership in excess of 12000. An observer category is provided to give personal status to groups or organizations considering formal affiliation. Objectives To reflect the interests and initiatives of the affiliated organizations. 0 To generate and disseminate information of interest to the medical and 0 biological engineering community and international organizations. To provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas and concepts. 0 To encourage and foster research and application of medical and biological 0 engineering knowledge and techniques in support of life quality and cost- effective health care. To stimulate international cooperation and collaboration on medical and 0 biological engineering matters. To encourage educational programmes which develop scientific and technical 0 expertise in medical and biological engineering. Activities Publication of the journal Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, MBEC News, regional conferences and a world congress every three years with IOMP in the context of IUPESM. Working Groups and Divisions are active in specific fields of medical and biological engineering. IOMP The IOMP was founded in 1963. The membership includes 52 national societies, two international organizations and 10000 individuals. Membership of IOMP consists of individual members of the Adhering National Organizations. Two other forms of membership are available, namely Affiliated Regional Organizations and Corporate Members. The IOMP is administered by a Council, which consists of delegates from each of the Adhering National Organizations; regular meetings of Council are held every three years at the International Conference on Medical Physics (ICMP). The Officers of the Council are the President, the Vice-president and the Secretary-General. IOMP committees include: developing countries; education and training; nominating; and publications. Objectives To organize international cooperation in medical physics in all its aspects, 0 especially in developing countries. To encourage and advise on the formation of national organizations of medical 0 physics in those countries which lack such organizations. Activities Official publications of the IOMP are Physiological Measurement, Physics in Medicine arid Biology, and the Medical Science Series, all published by Institute of Physics Publishing. The IOMP publishes a bulletin Medical Physics World twice a year. Two Council meetings and one General Assembly are held every three years at the ICMP. The most recent ICMPs were held in Kyoto, Japan (1991) and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (l994), and a future conference is scheduled for Nice, France (1997). These conferences are normally held in collaboration with the IFMBE to form the World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. The IOMP also sponsors occasional international conferences, the most recent being in Seoul, Xian and Guangzhou (1991) and Pakistan, India and Argentina (1992). For further information contact: Hans Svensson, PhD, DSc, Professor, Radiation Physics Department, University Hospital. 90185 UmeA, Sweden, Tel: (46)90 103891, Fax: (46190 101588. This book is dedicated to my students and to all my friends with physical impairments who have provided me with valuable insight. Furthermore, this book would not have been possible had it not been for the support of my wife, Rosemarie Cooper, and my grandfather and best friend, Roy Munn. Rory A Cooper March 1995 CONTENTS ... PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Rehabilitation Engineering 1 1.2 US Legislation Influencing Rehabilitation Engineering 4 1.3 International Policy Influencing Rehabilitation Engineering 7 1.4 Assistive Technology 11 1.5 Rehabilitation Technology Suppliers 15 1.6 Engineering Acceptable Performance 15 1.7 Rehabilitation Engineering Design 16 1.8 Assistive Technology Design Criteria 18 1.9 Product Testing 23 1.10 Summary 24 Further Reading and References 27 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF REHABILITATION ENGINEERING DESIGN 30 2.1 Design Considerations 30 2.2 Total Quality Management in Rehabilitation Engineering 35 2.3 Steel as a Structural Material 42 2.4 Aluminum for Assistive Technology Design 46 2.5 Use of Composites for Assistive Technology Design 49 2.6 Design with Engineering Materials 50 2.7 Fabrication 53 2.8 Basic Electric Circuits 55 Further Reading and References 68 3 BIOMECHANICS OF MOBILITY AND MANIPULATION 69 3.1 Human Motion Analysis 69 3.2 Gait Analysis 90 3.3 Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation for Movement Restoration 109 3.4 Biomechanics of Wheelchair Propulsion 115 3.5 Biomechanics of Seating 132 ix X Cont e 12 ts 3.6 Biomechanics of Manipulation 138 Further Reading and References 14 4 4 UNIVERSAL DESIGN AND ACCESSIBILITY 155 4.1 Barrier-Free Design 155 4.2 Elemental Resource Model 156 4.3 Factors Affecting Barrier-Free Design 159 4.4 Interior Space Design 165 4.5 Design for People with Disabilities 166 4.6 Accessible Transportation 177 4.7 Access Legislation 182 Further Reading and References 187 5 PERSONAL TRANSPORTATION 191 5.1 Introduction 191 5.2 Selecting a Vehicle 193 5.3 Lift Mechanisms 196 5.4 Wheelchair Securement Systems 199 5.5 Passenger Restraint Systems 202 5.6 Automobile Hand-Controls 210 5.7 Control of Secondary Functions 215 Further Reading and References 217 6 WHEELCHAIR SAFETY, STANDARDS AND TESTING 219 6.1 Introduction 219 6.2 Standard Tests 219 6.3 Normative Values 220 6.4 Static Stability 220 6.5 A Geometric Approach to Static Stability 223 6.6 Stability with Road Crown and Inclination 224 6.7 Impact Strength Tests 228 6.8 Fatigue Strength Tests 235 6.9 Finite-Element Modeling Applied to Wheelchair Designmesting 24 1 6.10 Test Dummies 243 6.11 Power Wheelchair Range Testing 244 6.12 Power Wheelchair Controller Performance 247 6.13 Designing for Safe Operation 249 Further Reading and References 253 7 MANUAL WHEELCHAIR DESIGN 255 7.1 Introduction 255 7.2 Classes of Manual Wheelchairs 256 7.3 Frame Design 26 1 Contents xi 7.4 Materials 265 7.5 The Wheelchair and Rider 272 7.6 Wheels and Casters 279 7.7 Components 285 7.8 Human Factors Design Considerations 285 7.9 Future Directions 288 Further Reading and References 289 8 POWER WHEELCHAIR DESIGN 29 1 8.1 Introduction 29 1 8.2 Classes of Power Wheelchairs 292 8.3 Motor Selection 292 8.4 Servoamplifiers 302 8.5 Microprocessor Control 307 8.6 Shared Control 315 8.7 Fault-Tolerant Control 32 1 8.8 Integrated Controllers 323 8.9 Electromagnetic Compatibility 32 5 8.10 Batteries 32 7 8.1 1 Gear Boxes 328 8.12 User Interfaces 32 9 Further Reading and References 333 9 POSTURAL SUPPORT AND SEATING 337 9.1 Seating and Postural Support Systems 337 9.2 Distribution of Stresses in Soft Tissues 359 9.3 Seating Pressure Measurement 361 9.4 Control Interface Integration 365 9.5 Multi-Configuration Seating and Postural Support Systems 368 Further Reading and References 375 10 PROSTHETICS AND ORTHOTICS 378 10.1 Introduction 378 10.2 Upper-Extremity Prostheses 386 10.3 Upper-Extremity Orthoses 39 4 10.4 Lower-Extremity Prostheses 397 10.5 Lower-Extremity Orthoses 407 10.6 Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation 412 10.7 Ambulation Aids 419 10.8 Aids to Daily Living 422 Further Reading and References 423 11 RECREATIONAL DEVICES AND VEHICLES 428 1 1.1 Introduction 428 xii Contents 1 1.2 Racing Wheelchairs 429 1 1.3 Arm-Powered Bicycles and Tricycles 438 1 1.4 Off-Road Vehicles 443 1 1 .5 Water Sports 445 11.6 Adaptive Ski Equipment 447 1 1.7 Recreational Vehicles 452 Further Reading and References 454 12 REHABILITATION ROBOTICS 456 12.1 Introduction 456 12.2 Components and Configurations of Robots 463 12.3 Robot Kinematics 468 12.4 Robot Motion 47 8 12.5 Robot Control 486 12.6 Robot Sensors 494 12.7 Human Interfaces to Robotic Systems 502 Further Reading and References 506 INDEX 510 PREFACE The field of rehabilitation engineering is continually evolving. The pace of the progress in rehabilitation engineering is so rapid that technologies and techniques seem to become obsolete before texts are ever written. This book attempts to provide a foundation for learning rehabilitation engineering as applied to mobility and manipulation. The primary audience for this book is beginning graduate biomedical or rehabilitation engineering students. It is inherently difficult to write a book that serves different readers coming to the subject with various backgrounds and degrees of technical knowledge. Rehabilitation engineering is a young discipline. The combination of disabilities and technology necessitates rehabilitation engineering being a markedly interdisciplinary field. Rehabilitation engineers must be knowledgeable about the possible outcomes of the rehabilitation process, and with the technical potentials offered by engineering. The rehabilitation medicine physician and therapist must be aware of the abilities technology has to offer, whether available or impending, in order to select and apply assistive technology and therapies that will optimize the patient’s rehabilitation. The rehabilitation engineer must have thorough knowledge of available technologies and current research, and have the ability to design technical solutions to ameliorate disability. This book reflects the current status of rehabilitation in that there is a lot of information presented at various levels. Some material is presented in great detail, whereas other material is treated at lesser depth. This reflects the current status of the discipline, as well as my personal biases. One of the difficulties in writing this book was the broad variety of backgrounds which students and professionals in rehabilitation have. This means that some areas of the book may appear simplistic for one reader and overwhelming for another. I have tried to place enough background and motivational material in the book to help readers learn what they need to understand the material or to have sufficient references to relevant work to be able to develop sufficient knowledge for a specific topic. Many books related to assistive technology or rehabilitation engineering do not provide sufficient depth to be considered as engineering textbooks. I have attempted to provide some clarification of difficult topics and to define rehabilitation engineering in terms familiar to ... Xlll

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