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Psychology of Space Exploration PDF

267 Pages·2011·2.05 MB·English
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About the Editor C P Psychology of About the Book o n s t em y Douglas A. Vakoch is a professor in the Department As we stand poised on the verge of a new era of po c Space Exploration of Clinical Psychology at the California Institute of r spaceflight, we must rethink every element, including a h r Integral Studies, as well as the director of Interstellar y R o the human dimension. This book explores some of the Message Composition at the SETI Institute. Dr. Vakoch es l Contemporary Research in Historical Perspective contributions of psychology to yesterday’s great space e o is a licensed psychologist in the state of California, and arc g Edited by Douglas A. Vakoch race, today’s orbiter and International Space Station mis- h his psychological research, clinical, and teaching interests in y sions, and tomorrow’s journeys beyond Earth’s orbit. include topics in psychotherapy, ecopsychology, and meth- H Early missions into space were typically brief, and crews odologies of psychological research. As a corresponding ist o were small, often drawn from a single nation. As an o f r member of the International Academy of Astronautics, ic intensely competitive space race has given way to inter- a S Dr. Vakoch chairs that organization’s Study Groups on l P national cooperation over the decades, the challenges of p e Interstellar Message Construction and Active SETI. r communicating across cultural boundaries and dealing s a p Through his membership in the International Institute ec c with interpersonal conflicts have become increasingly t of Space Law, he examines policy issues related to inter- iv e important, requiring different coping skills and sensibil- e stellar communication. He is the editor of several forth- E ities from “the right stuff” of early astronauts. coming volumes, including Between Worlds: The Art x As astronauts travel to asteroids or establish a per- and Science of Interstellar Message Composition (MIT p manent colony on the Moon, with the eventual goal of Press); Archaeology, Anthropology, and Interstellar l reaching Mars, the duration of expeditions will increase o Communication (NASA History Series); and Ecofeminism markedly, as will the psychosocial stresses. Away from r and Rhetoric: Critical Perspectives on Sex, Technology, a their home planet for extended times, future spacefarers t and Discourse (Berghahn Books). Dr. Vakoch serves as will need to be increasingly self-sufficient and autono- i o general editor of the book series Ecofeminist Theory and mous while they simultaneously deal with the complexi- n Practice, published by Berghahn Books, and he is a mem- ties of heterogeneous, multicultural crews. Psychology of ber of the editorial board of the journal Ecopsychology. Space Exploration: Contemporary Research in Historical Dr. Vakoch has chaired numerous workshops and Perspective provides an analysis of these and other chal- conference sessions, including several symposia at recent lenges facing future space explorers while at the same annual conventions of the American Psychological time presenting new empirical research on topics rang- Association on the psychology of space exploration and ing from simulation studies of commercial spaceflights to on environmental psychology. While completing his M.A. D the psychological benefits of viewing Earth from space. o u in history and philosophy of science at the University of glaEd In addition to examining contemporary psycholog- Notre Dame, he focused on both the history of astron- s Aite ical research, each essay also explicitly addresses the . Vd b omy and the history of psychology. He received his Ph.D. ay history of the psychology of space exploration. Leading k o in clinical psychology with a Quantitative Concentration c contributors to the field place the latest theories and ISBN 978-0-16-088358-3 For sale by the Supe nrtiendent of Dhocuments, U.S. Government P nrtiing Office from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800 empirical findings in historical context by examining 9 0 0 0 0 Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-0001 After finishing his predoctoral clinical internship in health changes in space missions over the past half century, ISBN 978-0-16-088358-3 psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison as well as reviewing developments in psychological sci- Hospital and Clinics, Dr. Vakoch completed a National ence during the same period. The essays are innovative Research Service Award postdoctoral fellowship in the in their approaches and conclusions, providing novel 9 780160 883583 Department of Psychology at Vanderbilt University. insights for behavioral researchers and historians alike. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Communications History Program Office Front cover image: “When Thoughts Turn Inward,” a watercolor painting by Washington, DC Back cover image: “Forty Pounds of Lead” (Space Shuttle Simulations, NASA NASA artist Henry Casselli, shows astronaut John Young during suit-up for the first Johnson Space Center), by Henry Casselli. (Image number 80-HC-522) NASA SP-2011-4411 SP-2011-4411 launch of America’s Space Shuttle Columbia. (Image number 82-HC-289) Psychology of Space Exploration Contemporary Research in Historical Perspective Edited by Douglas A. Vakoch The NASA History Series National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Communications History Program Office Washington, DC 2011 NASA SP-2011-4411 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Psychology of space exploration : contemporary research in historical perspective / edited by Douglas A. Vakoch. p. cm. -- (NASA history series) 1. Space psychology. 2. Space flight--Psychological aspects. 3. Outer space--Explo- ration. 4. Space sciences--United States. I. Vakoch, Douglas A. II. United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. RC1160.P79 2009 155.9’66--dc22 2009026665 ISBN 978-0-16-088358-3 For sale by the Superntiendent of Documents, U.S. Government Prntiing Office Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800 9 0 0 0 0 Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-0001 ISBN 978-0-16-088358-3 9 780160 883583 To Julie and Len THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK Table of Contents Foreword vii Acknowledgments ix Chapter 1. Introduction: Psychology and the U.S. Space Program 1 Albert A. Harrison, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis Edna R. Fiedler, National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine Section I: Surviving and Thriving in Extreme Environments Chapter 2. Behavioral Health 17 Albert A. Harrison, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis Edna R. Fiedler, National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine Chapter 3. From Earth Analogs to Space: Getting There from Here 47 Sheryl L. Bishop, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health and School of Nursing, University of Texas Medical Branch Chapter 4. Patterns in Crew-Initiated Photography of Earth from the ISS—Is Earth Observation a Salutogenic Experience? 79 Julie A. Robinson, Office of the ISS Program Scientist, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) Kelley J. Slack, Behavioral Health and Performance Research, Wyle Laboratories Valerie A. Olson, Department of Anthropology, Rice University Michael H. Trenchard, Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG), NASA JSC Kimberly J. Willis, Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, ESCG, NASA JSC Pamela J. Baskin, Behavioral Health and Performance Research, Wyle Laboratories Jennifer E. Boyd, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco; and San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center v Psychology of Space Exploration Section II: Managing Interpersonal Conflict in Space Chapter 5. Managing Negative Interactions in Space Crews: The Role of Simulator Research 103 Harvey Wichman, Aerospace Psychology Laboratory, Claremont McKenna College and Claremont Graduate University Chapter 6. Gender Composition and Crew Cohesion During Long-Duration Space Missions 125 Jason P. Kring, Department of Human Factors and Systems, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Megan A. Kaminski, Program in Human Factors and Applied Cognition, George Mason University Section III: Multicultural Dimensions of Space Exploration Chapter 7. Flying with Strangers: Postmission Reflections of Multinational Space Crews 143 Peter Suedfeld, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia Kasia E. Wilk, Youth Forensic Psychiatric Services Research and Evaluation Department, Ministry of Children and Family Development Lindi Cassel, Department of Occupational Therapy, Providence Health Care Chapter 8. Spaceflight and Cross-Cultural Psychology 177 Juris G. Draguns, Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University Albert A. Harrison, Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis Afterword. From the Past to the Future 195 Gro Mjeldheim Sandal, Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen Gloria R. Leon, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota About the Authors 205 Acronyms and Abbreviations 219 The NASA History Series 221 Subject Index 235 Authors Cited 249 vi Foreword Each month, the cover of Monitor on Psychology, a magazine sent to over one hundred thousand members of the American Psychological Association, reflects intriguing new areas of interest to psychologists who work as researchers, clinicians, consultants, and teachers. The importance of human adaptation to space for con- temporary psychologists is suggested by the cover of the March 2008 Monitor, which featured an astronaut drifting in space, with the tranquil blue Earth in the back- ground and the caption “Deep Space Psych” below. At one level, the essays in this volume provide an overview and synthesis of some of the key issues in the psychology of space exploration, as well as a sampling of highly innovative empirical research. The characteristic that most clearly sets this collection apart from others, however, is the depth with which the authors have engaged the history of the psychology of space exploration. All psychologists are familiar with the importance of engaging past research and theory while conducting literature reviews in preparation for designing and inter- preting new studies. But the contributors to this collection have done much more. They have crafted essays that will be of obvious value to psychologists, psychiatrists, and other behavioral researchers. At the same time, these authors have created a collection with the promise to promote a greater dialogue between psychological researchers and both historians of space exploration and historians of psychology. Psychologists and historians have quite different criteria for good scholarship and for communicating their findings. These differences make the essays in this vol- ume—meaningful and accessible even to those not formally trained in psycholo- gists’ methodologies and mindsets—all the more impressive. With the increasing specialization and isolation of academic disciplines from one another over the past century, these essays serve as a prototype for a broader attempt to bridge the gap between the two cultures of science and the humanities that C. P. Snow identified almost a half century ago—quite fittingly for us, near the beginning of the Space Age. Let us hope that as we prepare once again to send astronauts beyond Earth’s orbit, we can do so with the guidance of others equally open to seeing beyond their own specialties. vii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK Acknowledgments Without the intellectual leadership of Albert Harrison, this book would never have come into existence, and it could not have been completed in such a timely manner. His contributions will be evident in the three chapters he has coauthored; invisible is his extensive work recruiting other contributors, reviewing chapters, and providing last-minute assistance more times than I care to remember. Much more important to me, however, is Al’s ongoing friendship. Over the past decade, many colleagues from the SETI Institute have shared with me their insights about the societal and educational impact of space explo- ration—especially John Billingham, Edna DeVore, Frank Drake, Andrew Fraknoi, John Gertz, Chris Neller, Tom Pierson, Karen Randall, Seth Shostak, and Jill Tarter. More recently, I warmly acknowledge the administration, faculty, staff, and students of the California Institute of Integral Studies (CIIS), especially for support from Katie McGovern, Joseph Subbiondo, and Judie Wexler. The work of editing this vol- ume was made possible through a generous sabbatical leave from my other academic responsibilities at CIIS. In addition, I thank Harry and Joyce Letaw, as well as Jamie Baswell, for their intellectual and financial contributions to promoting the societal aspects of space exploration. Among the organizations that have fostered discussions on the topics in this volume, I especially want to recognize the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) and the American Psychological Association (APA). Several of the chap- ters in this volume are elaborations of papers first presented at the APA’s 115th Annual Convention, held in San Francisco in August 2007. For his openness to considering a new topic for the NASA History Series, I thank Steve Dick; I am also grateful to him and to Steve Garber for leading such a thorough and helpful review process and for moving this volume into production so efficiently. In the Communications Support Services Center at NASA Headquarters, Lisa Jirousek copyedited the manuscript, Christopher Yates designed the lay- out, Stacie Dapoz and George Gonzalez proofread the layout, and Hanta Ralay and Tun Hla handled the printing. Supervisors Gail Carter-Kane, Cindy Miller, Michael Crnkovic, and Tom Powers oversaw the overall process. Thanks are due to all of these fine professionals. ix

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