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Objectives of Apollo Geological Field Investigations & Proposal for PDF

61 Pages·2007·4.39 MB·English
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PROJECT APOLEO FIELD GEOLOGY PUNNING TEAM OBJECTIVES OF APOLLO GEOLOGZCAL FIELD INVESTIGATIONS AND PROPOSAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AN APOLLO FIELD EXPLORATION SYSTEM BY Edwin N. Goddard, J. Hoover Mackin, Eugene M. Shoemaker and Aaron C. Waters Fiscal Years 1965-66 March 1965 PIW0,JEC'IC APOLEO FIELD GEOLOGY PUNNING TEAM OBJECTIVES OF ABOELO GEOLOGICAL FIELD INVESTIGA.TEONS AflD PROPOSAL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AN APOLLo FIELD EXPLOMTTBN SYSTEM BY Edwin N, Goddard, J, Hoover Mackin Eugene M, Shoemaker and Aaron C: Waters Fiscal Years 1965-66 March 1965 Page --------------- Objectives of Apsllo geological field investigation 1 Introducti~n ------------m-------------m----m-----m---mm-m-mm--m- ............................. Fine structure of the mare surfaces ---------------- Concept of field geological exploration system Selection of samples --------------m-----m--------------- ------------------- Apolio field exploration system -,,=,----------- Equipment carried by astronaut -------------------------mm2--mw-cm- Lunar surveying staff --m----m-------------w3-m--ma----~-,---- Staff tekev-jsion camera ---------------m-------------- Scientific functions --mm---------------m-m~c.2m- General subsystem specifications --c-------m---- Stereometric film camera -------------------mt-------- Scientific functions --------------B----cmm--wa- -------------- General subsystem specifications ------------------- Tracking and orientation subsystems Staff ~rackings ubsystem -------=,-~------'m---~-7-mxJ~- Scientific functions ----m----m--m------mu mmom,.,m -------------- General subsystem speeifieations Staff orientation subsystem ----m-------ms---m-m Scientific functions -----------m--------m=>-,m-- General subsystem specifications --=----------- ----------------- Auxiliary orientation instruments ......................... Scientific func$ions ........................ General specifications i - CON1CENTS -Csnt inued Page Physical properties module -------------------m-w--m-B- 23 Gama ray fluxmeter 23 -------------m------m-------m-- Scientific functions 23 -------------------w--mww- -------------- General subsystem specifications 24 ----- Suscegt ibility-conduct ivity induct ion balance 24 Scientific functions 24 ----------------------,m-wm -------------- General subsystem specifications 25 Penetrometer 25 Scientific functions 25 -------------------m--mwm- -------------- General subsystem specifications 26 Ancillary equipment 26 --------------------m-------m--m---~~ww ......................... Sampling tools and containers 26 Scientific function ------------------------*-- 26 --- General sample and equipment specifications 26 Auxiliary light module ----------.--------------------- 27 ......................... Scientific function 2% ----------------- General module specifications 28 ......................... Instrument and sample carrier 28 General functions 28 --------------------mmm~m~w~m Audio communications equipment 29 ----------------------m----- Scientific functions 29 -------------------em----- ...................................... Equipment on LEN 30 Surveillance subsystem ----------------------*------------ 30 Exploration periscope 30 -----------------------mm----m--- Page Scientific functions 30 ----------------------m-- ------------- General periscope specifications 31 .................... Surveillance televisi.on subsystem 31 Scientific functions 31 ---------------------em-- ------------- General subsystem specifications 31 ....................... Electrmechanical camera subsystem 32 Scientific function 32 ----------------m----m---- ------------- General subsystem specifications 33 Tebesnetering equipment 33 ---m---------------m~---w--------m~-mm~m Scientific functions 33 -------m--------------m-m Telemetry alternatives 36 ----------------mm----- Data handling equipment ~~--~-----~-----~~~sasa-sa-sacncncncncncncncncncncncncncncn 38 Instrument development plan 40 -----------------------=---------mmm---e Work plan 41 --------~------------m--m-mm-w---m--m--m-mmm-~~-~-mm General 41 -------m--------------m-mm-----w--om--mmt,~,m--m~mm-- ...................... Contract preparation and monitoring 42 Lunar surveying staff 42 --.-e-------------.------------mm---e Staff television, subsystem 42 ----m-m------m---m----- 42 -------- Staff tracking and orientation subsystems 45 ....................... Physical properties module 45 Ancillary equipment 46 ---------------------m--m------m-m ------------- Sampling tools and sample containers 46 Auxiliary light 46 --m--.--.----.----m----mmm-m--~-~m~wm iii CONTENTS --@anti nued Page ------- Carrier for instruments, tools, and samples 46 Surveillance system 47 ------m---------------------~-mmm~--~ Exploration periscope 47 ---------------m---w-~mm-~~-m .................... Surveillance television camera 47 -------------------- Electromechanical camera subsystem 47 ------------------- Assembly and use sf a breadboard system 48 Breadboard instruments 48 --------------------mm---m--w-m- ..................... Staff television subsystem 48 Stereometric filmcamera 50 -------------------m-m---m --------------- Tracking and orientation subsystems 50 .................... Physical properties components 50 Explorati,sn periscope 51 -----------------D.--m-mmm---- .................... Surveillance television camera 51 ---------------- Electromechanical camera subsystem 51 Field testing of prototype instruments 51 --,------------------ Operating budget 52 --------------------wm-m-G----m>m-mmwm----- Page Table 1, Estimated flight mass and power requirements for the ...................... Apollo field exploration system Table 2, Nature and accuracy of data to be obtained from the ...................... Apollo field exploration system Table 3, Estimated maximum telemetry requirements for the Apollo field exploration system --------m----w-m---~~wmcmm~m~m --- Table 4, Recommendations for instrument development contrasts Table 5, Sumary budget for breadboard instruments and supporting equipment t o be used for development sf operational ............................ and analysis techniques Table 6, Summary of estimated operating costs for the field geology team, FY 1966 -----------m-m-m-----mw-~---m-~OI FIGURE ---------------- Figure 1, Lunar surveying staff concept fsl.lows page 16 PROPOSAL FOR. PROJECT APOLm GEOLOGICAL FIELD INVES-TIGA-TIO NS by Edwin N, Goddard, J, Hoover Mackin, Eugene M. Shoemaker and Aaron C, Waters OBJECTIVES OF APOLLO GEBWGICAL FIELD INVESTIGATION INTRODUCTION Project Apollo will present the first opportunity for field investi- gations on the Moon. The broad objective of the advance planning of these investigations i s to enable the astronauts to obtain the maximum amount of information during the necessarily brief landings, under the constraints imposed by space flight and the conditions on the Moon's surface, Any assemblage of topographic features or materials on the Moon, as on the Earth, is apt to be the result of some process or event which mod- ified to a greater or less extent features or materials formed by earlier events, which in turn modified still earlier features or materials formed by earlier events, and so on into the past; anything more than a super- ficial understanding of most lunar problems therefore depends on the working out of the formative sequence of events.,-that is, the approach znust be in part historical, Because it will not be possible for the astronauts directly to observe most of the processes tha% formed the surface of the Moon, the nature of these processes must be inferred from the observable products, interpreted in the light of physical laws. In these and other respects most lunar geologic problems are closely analo- gous to those of the Earth; methods of investigation developed over a period of about 200 years of dealing with these problems on the Earth are directly applicable to studies on the Moon, The innovations made possib1.e by modern technology are largely madifications sf these proven methods, Perhaps the most basic element sf the geologic approach is an intensive effort to increase the efficiency of the investigator in the field by obtaining in advance as much information as possible regarding the area and the problems of its geologic structure, and carrying the analysis of that information as far as possible before going into the field, One obvious purpose of this preparatory work is to be sure that, to the extent that the problems can be anticipated, the field equipment to be taken to the Moon will be tailor-made to study them. Equally im- portant is the preparation of what may be called the mental field equip- ment of the astronaut to the end that he spends his time, not in an impossible attempt to see and collect everything a t random, but in an intelligently directed seeking-out of criticah evidence, However thorough the preparation, it is of course likely that problems will be ---- encountered which were not anticipated attainment of maximum effi- ciency in the field simply requires carrying analysis of a l l available data as far as possible, so as to reduce the unexpected to a minimum. In general, the need for preparation of the mechanical and mental field equipment for field work on the Earth varies directly with (a) the complexity of the area, (b) the brevity of the time that can be spent in the field, and (c) the difficulty of access, If a man is working in his own back yard, for example, it is not very serious if he has to make several trips to obtain the evidence that could 'l-ave been gathered in one trip if he had been aware of the problems, Lunar problems may prove to be less complex than those of the Ea.rt%~b, ut the ~ t k trc,m factors, time available and access, place a premium on efficiency the field in that is incomparably greater than in any earthbound expedition, Lunar geologic mapping by the Astrsgearlsgy Branch of the Geological Survey makes it clear that there are a variety of assemblages of topo- graphic features on the Moon, and that these features consist of rnateri- als differing in composition, structure, and age; %bere are on the Noon, as on the Earth, distinctive topographic and geologic provinces, each of which will present different problems, This means that the planning for each landing must be focussed as sharply as practicable on the specific ---- problems of the terrain where the landing is t o be made each type of terrain will require a somewhat different equipment package, both mechanical and mental, A mare floor may be selected for the f i r s t manned landing, primar- ily because the relatively low relief of the maria offers what seems, at present, to be the safest conditions for setting down the LEN, The origin of the maria is a many-sided problem that xi11 not be solved by studies i n any one place; if the landing site is on a relatively flat surface a considerable distance from the nearest crater rim or other major escarpment, the investigations will necessarily be limited to that surface. The most immediate question will be the composition, fine structure, and thickness of a superficial layer of fragmental material believed by many students of the Moon to have been formed by the impact of objects of various sizes over a very long period of time. Closely related to the origin of this material, is the distribution and range in size and shape of craters which pock-mark the surface, as seen in the Ranger VHL photographs. A second question is the nature of the material beneath the surficial layer; whether it is (1) solid rock, perhaps the impact-modified surface of a flood of lava, or (2) detrital material, laid down a t the time of formation of the maria or later. These prob- lems are outlined below with a view to developing as far as possible questions of field procedure that may con£r ont. the astronau~,s FINE STRUCTUW OF THE M.RE SSwA.CES Models of the local fine structure of the maria can be derived from physical studies of the Moon's surface, by means of telescopic photomet- ry, radiometry and reflected microwave signals, and observations of the lunar crater distribution in combination with empirical knowledge of the phenomenology of cratering, cratering theory, current data. on. the flux of meteoroids i n the vicinity of the Earth, and estimates of the effects of other processes acting on the lunar surface, such as sputtering pro- duced by solar bombardment. From such studies we already know that the lunar crust is demonstrably heterogeneous in composition. The fine structure of the surface also may be expected to be heterogeneous.

origin of the fine structure of the Moon, on the other hand, can lead to serious scientific which make up the field geological exploration system proposed here ,.
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