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NONLINEAR EMBEDDING FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY RF POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN AND APPLICATION TO GENERALIZED ASYMMETRIC DOHERTY AMPLIFIERS DISSERTATION Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of The Ohio State University By Haedong Jang, M.S.E.E. Graduate Program in Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University 2014 Dissertation Committee: Prof. PatrickRoblin,Adviser Prof. RobertoRojas-Teran Prof. StevenB.Bibyk Prof. ChristopherM.Hadad (cid:2)c Copyrightby HaedongJang 2014 ABSTRACT Afullymodel-basednonlinearembeddingdevicemodelincludinglowandhigh-frequency dispersion effects is implemented for the Angelov device model and successfully demon- strated for load modulation power amplifier (PA) applications. Using this nonlinear em- beddingdevicemodel,anydesiredPAmodeofoperationatthecurrentsourceplanecanbe projectedtotheexternalreferenceplanestosynthesizetherequiredmulti-harmonicsource andloadterminations. A2DidentificationoftheintrinsicPAoperationmodesisperformed firstatthecurrentsourcereferenceplanes. Forintrinsicmodesdefinedwithoutlossypara- sitics, most of the required source impedance terminations will exhibit a substantial nega- tiveresistanceafterprojectiontotheexternalreferenceplanes. Theseterminationscanthen be implemented by active harmonic injection at the input. It is verified experimentally for a 15 W GaN HEMT class AB mode that using the second harmonic injection synthesized by the embedding device model at the input, yields an improved drain efficiency of up to 5%inagreementwiththesimulation. AnasymmetricDohertyamplifierwasbuiltusingtwo15WpeakpowerpackagedGaN transistors forthe demonstration ofthe proposed method. 71%drain efficiency atthe peak power of 41.8 dBm and 62.7% at the second peak of 32.8 dBm (9 dB back-off) were observed. Above50%drainefficiencywasmaintainedoverthe11dBoutputpowerrange. 51.86% average drain efficiency was observed after linearization maintaining -51.46 dBc ii adjacent channel power ratio excited by 10 MHz bandwidth long term evolution signals with9.96dBpeaktoaveragepowerratio. A novel procedure was introduced for designing Doherty amplifiers using the model- based nonlinear-embedding technique. First, the Doherty intrinsic load matching network is designed at the transistor current-source reference-plane with the main and auxiliary devices interconnected. Identical devices with different biasing are used for realizing an asymmetric Doherty implementation with 9 dB back-off. An even-number multi-section impedance transformers and a reduced drain voltage of the main amplifier are used. A closedformanalysisoftheasymmetricDohertyloadnetworkisprovided. iii Dedicatedtomyfamily. iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First of all, I would like to thank Dr. Patrick Roblin, my advisor, for guiding my Ph.D. work. He provided me the main idea of this work and whenever I had a problem he actively and willingly solved them or provided in-depth advices. I am deeply grateful to him for giving me this opportunity to contribute to this work as well as recommending me to various funding sources such as National Science Foundation, Graduate Fellowship and teachingassistantshipformetostayinfocusonmyPh.D.researchwithoutconcernsabout financially support. Most of all, I would like to thank for his patience and encouragement formetocontributetothetransactionqualitypaperwhichwillbeveryhelpfultomyfuture career and opened my potential for further growth in scientific knowledge and scholarly achievements. IalsowouldliketothankProfessorRobertoRojasandProfessorStevenBibykandthe graduate representative Professor Christopher Hadad for their valuable time and review of thisdissertationandsuggestionstomakethismanuscriptmorecomplete. IalsowouldliketothankYoungseoKo,AndresZarate-de-LandaforsupportingLSNA measurements, showing me how to use the LSNA and the TRL calibration kit. I am also grateful to Christophe Quindroit, YiQiao Lin, Rob D. Pond and Meenaksi Rawat for valu- ablediscussions,teachingandgeneroussupportsasacolleague. I also thank former graduates and visiting scholars Chie-Kai Yang, Xi Yang, Inwon Suh, Jiwoo Kim, Dounia Baiya and Professor Zhijian Xie for generous discussions and v various help in many different ways. I especially thank Inwon for teaching me how to use the Quick CAM machine and making circuit boards. Thanks also goes to former graduate Dr. Seok Joo Doo for providing the LSNA measurement program which saved significant amountofmytime. It is also my great pleasure to thank Professor Hyo Dal Park for introducing me to this great opportunity of studying abroad and conducting research with globally recognized peopleinthisareawhichwasveryinterestingtome. I also would like to thank Dr. David E. Root for giving me the summer internship opportunity and taking care of me during the time in Agilent Technologies. It was very helpfulexperienceforextendinganddeepeningmyunderstandinginthisresearchfield. I also owe a lot of appreciation to my family in South Korea for their continuous en- couragement,supportandsacrifice. FinallyIwouldliketoexpressmydeepestgratitudeto mymotherinheavenforgivingmethegiftofthelifeofthissweetachievementandalways watchingmeabovetocontinuouslyremindmethefactthatshelovesme. vi VITA March,1971 ................................Born-Wonju,RepublicofKorea March,1994 ................................B.S. ElectricalEngineering, KangwonNationalUniversity, Chuncheon,RepublicofKorea December1996-July2007 ..................ProductDevelopmentConsultant, SmallBusinessCorporation, Seoul,Korea. MARCH,2005 ............................. M.S. Electrical&ComputerEngineering, InhaUniversity, Incheon,RepublicofKorea, MARCH,2008 ............................. Ph. D.(ABD) Electrical&ComputerEngineering, InhaUniversity, Incheon,RepublicofKorea, MAY,2013 .................................M.S. Electrical&ComputerEngineering, TheOhioStateUniversity. September,2009-present ....................Ph. D.Student, ElectricalandComputerEngineering, TheOhioStateUniversity. September2009-August2010 ...............GraduateFellow, ElectricalandComputerEngineering, TheOhioStateUniversity. September2010-December2011 ............ GraduateTeachingAssociate, ElectricalandComputerEngineering, TheOhioStateUniversity. January2012-April2012 ................... GraduateResearchAssociate, ElectricalandComputerEngineering, TheOhioStateUniversity. vii May-August2012 ..........................Intern, AgilentTechnologies, SantaRosa,CA, September2012-April2013 .................GraduateTeachingAssociate, ElectricalandComputerEngineering, TheOhioStateUniversity, May2013-present ..........................GraduateResearchAssociate, ElectricalandComputerEngineering, TheOhioStateUniversity. PUBLICATIONS ResearchPublications H. Jang, P. Roblin, C. Quindroit, and Y. Lin, ”Asymmetric Doherty power amplifier de- signed using model-based nonlinear embedding,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., July2014. (submitted) H. Jang, P. Roblin, and Z. Xie, ”Model-based nonlinear embedding for power amplifier design,”IEEETrans. Microw. TheoryTechn.,May2014. (accepted) Y. Lin, H. Jang, C. Quindroit, N. Naraharisetti, and P. Roblin, ”New supply modulation optimization methodology for concurrent dual band envelope tracking power amplifier,” IEEEWirelessandMicrowaveTechnologyConference,Tampa,FL,Jun. 2014 H. Jang, P. Roblin, and C. Quindroit, ”Adjustable load-modulation asymmetric Doherty amplifierdesignusingnonlinearembedding,”IEEEMTT-SMicrowaveSymposiumDigest, Tampa,FL,Jun. 2014. H. Jang, P. Roblin, A. Zarate-de Landa, and J. Apolinar Reynoso-Hernancez,”Fast second harmonic injection characterization for efficiency enhancement of RF power amplifiers,” IEEE82thARFTGConference,Columbus,OH,Nov. 2013. H. Jang, A. Zai, T. Reveryrand, P. Roblin, Z. Popovic, and D. E. Root,”Simulation and measurement-based X-parameter models for power amplifiers with envelope tracking,” IEEEMTT-SInternationalMicrowaveSymposiumDigest,Seattle,WA,Jun. 2013. H. Jang, Y. Ko, and P. Roblin,”Development of multiharmonic verification artifact for the LSNAandNVNA,”IEEEMicrowaveMagazine,vol. 14,no. 1,pp. 134-139,Jan. 2013. viii P. Roblin, Y. Ko, H. Jang, and J. P. Teyssier,”Pulsed RF calibration for NVNA measure- ments,”IEEE80thARFTGConference,SanDiego,CA,Nov. 2012. Y.Ko,P.Roblin,C.K.Yang,H.Jang,andB.Poling,”Newthermometryandtraprelaxation characterization techniques for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using pulsed-RF excitations,” IEEE MTT-SInternationalMicrowaveSymposiumDigest,Montreal,QC,Canada,Jun. 2012. H. Jang, Y. Ko, P. Roblin, C. K. Yang, and H. D. Park,”Pulsed load-pull based optimal load-modulation PA design methodology for average efficiency enhancement,” IEEE 78th ARFTGConference,Tempe,AZ,Dec. 2011. FIELDS OF STUDY MajorField: ElectricalandElectronicsEngineering StudiesinMicrowaveandMicroelectronics: Prof.PatrickRoblin ix

strated for load modulation power amplifier (PA) applications. 51.86% average drain efficiency was observed after linearization maintaining -51.46 dBc . IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, Seattle, WA, Jun.
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