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Niobium Proving - Vancouver Homeopathic Academy PDF

244 Pages·2009·1.44 MB·English
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NIOBIUM METALLICUM VANCOUVER PROVING APRIL, 2004 Vancouver Homeopathy Academy, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada School Director: Murray Feldman, MCH, RSHom, CCH Proving Coordinator: Dr. Lianne South, DC, ND, DHANP, CCH, RSHom (NA) Supervisor Directors: Allyson Burden and Tamara Pearl (Exit Meeting Notes taken by Tamara Pearl) Supervisors: Carol-Anne Bickerstaff, Krista Brown, Catherine Dean, Leslie Lewis, Bonnie Pennell, Nicole Planek, Donna Powers, Barbara Roberts, Louise Rollard, Lora Roy, Tami De Santos, Pat Walker Compilation and Introduction by Linda F.G. Miller, Fourth Year Final Project, 2006/07 INTRODUCTION Connections lit up my mind following the proving exit meeting as Laurie Dack described the diffuse boundaries theme of Phosphorus to our first year class. Niobium also had boundary themes though more intense and destructive than Phosphorus. Searching for more patterns, I located these two elements on the periodic table. Though in different columns and rows, I noticed a relationship between their atomic weights: the atomic weight of Niobium is 92.906. This is almost exactly three times the atomic weight of Phosphorus at 30.973. Delight in pattern thinking, blended with my newly acquired vision of homeopathy from inside a proving, sealed my commitment to this healing art. Niobium is found in Group Five, Period Five of the periodic table. As a transition metal, it is in the sub-series Lanthanides, according to Dr. Ramesh Jain and Dr. Smita Tridevi. Though the Lanthanides are known as part of the gold series by homeopaths, it is interesting that both silver and gold series are transition metals in the sub-series Lanthanides. Perhaps we can consider some common themes in this broader grouping as well as themes of the silver and gold series individually. Niobium physically facilitates electrical connections. Blue-green in colour, it is used in cathodes and capacitors (electronics), camera lenses, computer screens, and chemical processing equipment. Niobium in the “silver series” of the periodic table has an affinity for artists, according to Dr. Jan Scholten. In society the artist historically challenges moral, social and aesthetic boundaries while reflecting our consciousness back to us in their work. Prover number six, a classical singer, encountered the proving as she was coming to terms with a failed career. Niobium reached deeply into all aspects of her creativity, including her children. Niobe, Queen of Thebes, for whom the element is named, lost all fourteen of 1 her children upon challenging her people’s worship of Latona, mother of Apollo and Diana. Appearing amongst the crowd, resplendent with gold and gems, she asked her subjects why they would worship an unseen goddess when her splendor was clearly visible and as worthy. The vengeful goddess killed her seven sons and seven daughters and turned her to stone. Niobe’s breach of boundary resulted in complete destruction for herself and her descendants. There appears to be a correlation between the rise of AIDS and the rise of anonymous, boundary-less, global communication created by the Internet. Destruction of the immune system, the body’s life-maintaining boundary, is the action of the HIV virus. Dr. Peter Fraser, lecturing in Calgary, Alberta, Canada in April of 2007, spoke of the Lanthanides as belonging the AIDS miasm, drawing parallels to electronic man. Dr. Jan Scholten’s recent work on the Lanthanides has found treatment for AIDS in these new remedies. The beginnings of the Internet were operational by June of 1983 when the U.S. National Science Foundation built a university network. It was around this time when the ravaging of the gay population by AIDS gained media attention. Canadian philosopher Marshall McLuhan chose the insightful phrase "global village" to highlight his observation that an electronic nervous system (the media) was rapidly integrating the planet. Events in one part of the world could be experienced from other parts in real-time. He writes, in 1964 in Understanding Media, “Today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned.” Jet and space travel, satellite communication, cell phones, international trade and telepathic communication further alter boundaries of time and space as human endeavour, folly and disease evolve with and beyond technology. Echoes of Niobe’s loss are found in this proving in dreams of saving children in danger, abuse of children, and detached witnessing of children being harmed. Other themes include fast-paced journeys and dwellings with endless rooms and portholes to foreign places. Past and future fold into the present in resolution of old hurts. Connection is desired with others, even to dissolve into one another in embrace. Sexual dreams involve prostitution, voyeurism, infidelity, violence, and psychic invasion. Drugs and crime accompany violation of person. Provers experienced floods from bursting water pipes and dreamt of rivers breaching their banks. Expanding and bursting sensations caused one prover to fear stroke for months after the proving. Time and space appear altered. Mysticism, creativity and synchronicity are harbingers of expanded consciousness. During the process of compiling this proving I have observed patterns between AIDS and the boundary-dissolving electronic age on a miasmatic scale. Niobium is a remedy for these modern times as boundaries of outer and inner world become increasingly indistinct. It is my hope that this proving will serve to increase our understanding of these global connections. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Poetry 5 Setting for the Proving/The Proving 6 Natural History: Niobium, the Element 7 Atomic Structure of Niobium 7 Chemical Properties of Niobium 8 Physical Properties of Niobium 8 Raw Materials 10 Extraction and Refining 11 Applications for Niobium 12 Jan Scholten on Niobium 13 Transition Elements and Lanthanides 19 Pre-Proving 24 In Class Following the Proving Exit Meeting 24 Aramaic Lord’s Prayer 25 Mind (Themes) 26 Dreams (Themes) 43 Vertigo 77 Head 77 Eyes 79 Vision 80 Ear 80 Hearing 81 Nose 81 Face 81 Mouth 82 Teeth 83 Throat 84 Stomach 84 Abdomen 85 Bladder 86 Urine 86 3 Rectum 86 Stool 87 Female 87 Respiratory Organs 89 Cough 89 Expectoration 89 Larynx and Trachea 90 Chest 90 Back 91 Extremities 92 Sleep 95 Fever/Heat 97 Skin 97 Generalities 98 Prover Number One 102 Prover Number Two 110 Prover Number Three 127 Prover Number Four 139 Prover Number Five 143 Prover Number Six 148 Prover Number Seven 168 Prover Number Eight 170 Prover Number Nine 176 Prover Number Ten 182 Prover Number Eleven 193 Prover Number Twelve 201 APPENDIX I – LIST OF NIOBIUM RUBRICS APPENDIX II – RUBRICS FROM MACREPERTORY 4 POETRY DIALOGUE WITH ECCLESIA Linda F.G. Miller (Inspired by the writings of Hildegard of Bingen) A fiery dragon curses this green and flowing place, drying it up, evaporating life and hope. How will I tame or catch this powerful illusion? Fame and pride, greed and lust are its life-blood. In humility, you shall diminish him; In quiet his fire will reduce to a benign spark, harmless. Ecclesia will pour Her gentle healing waters on you; She will wash you clean in her blue-green, cool seas; You’ll remember your true self. How will She come, where will She find me in this place? In the moment you open your heart and ask Her to come to you, She will attend, and stay as long as you choose. Ecclesia came in Her blue-diamond gown, crowned in stars, gleaming the sun’s rays, with all of Creation’s flora and fauna swirling at Her feet forming her veil and train that stretched to eternity. In Her presence my heart was cleansed, my thoughts stilled. My false pursuits came crashing down like the shedding of armourous skin. Unveiled, I stood in wonder at the marvelous, green pulsing of Creation that matched the rhythm of my beating heart. I humbly lifted my throat to heaven and sang my soul’s perfect song. 5 THE SETTING FOR THE PROVING The initial meeting for the proving was held following class at the Vancouver Homeopathy Academy on the University of British Columbia campus on Sunday, March 14, 2004. The school was temporarily housed in a portable at that time, as extensive renovations to the main building housing the School of Theology were incomplete. The concept of unfinished projects comes up prominently throughout the proving. The writing up of the proving began in July of 2006, ending over two years of waiting as an unfinished project in the busy office of the proving coordinator. Reports from one prover and some of the supervisors went missing. In spite of this, journals from twelve provers provide us with a wealth of information on Niobium metallicum. THE PROVING Helios Pharmacy, Tunbridge Wells, England, prepared the remedy. The potency given to all provers was 30C; none were given placebo. Thirteen women participated in the proving. Eight were from the Vancouver area, one from Gabriola Island, BC, one from Edmonton, AB, one from Seattle, WA, and one from Calgary, AB. The proving was triple blind, the remedy having been chosen by the Director of the Vancouver Homeopathy Academy, Murray Feldman. Dr. Lianne South coordinated the proving. All the provers were supervised. Supervisors reported to Supervisor Directors, Allyson Burden and Tamara Pearl. Provers were instructed to take one dose of the remedy on the evening of Sunday, March 28, 2004, two to three pellets dissolved under the tongue. If no symptoms since the start of the proving, they were advised by their supervisors to take a second dose of the remedy at bedtime on the following evening, Monday, March 29, 2004. A third and final dose was to be taken on the evening of Tuesday, March 30, 2004 if no new symptoms had developed. No more remedy was to be taken after the third dose. Journaling continued through the proving exit meeting on Saturday, April 17, 2004. 6 NATURAL HISTORY: NIOBIUM, THE ELEMENT Columbium and niobium are synonymous names for the chemical element with atomic number 41. It is in Group 5, period 5 in the transition metals. The transition metals include all elements in the sub-series Lanthanides and Actinides of the inner-transition elements and at least part of the sub-series Transactinides, which are the elements following the Actinides series. In general these elements are known for their hardness, high density, high melting point and boiling point and heat conduction although there are exceptions. These elements all have a d electron as the differentiating electron in their electron configuration. In other words, their outer most electrons are always in the d orbital. ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF NIOBIUM Atomic Radius: 2.08Å Atomic Volume: 10.87cm3/mol Covalent Radius: 1.34Å Cross Section: 1.15barns ±0.05 Crystal Structure: Cubic body centered Electron Configuration: 1s2 2s2p6 3s2p6d10 4s2p6d4 5s1 Electrons per Energy Level: 2,8,18,12,1 Shell Model 7 Ionic Radius: 0.69Å Filling Orbital: 4d 4 Number of Electrons (with no charge): 41 Number of Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 52 Number of Protons: 41 Oxidation States: 5,3 Valence Electrons: 4d 4 5s 1 Electron Dot Model CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF NIOBIUM Electrochemical Equivalent: 0.69327g/amp-hr Electron Work Function: 4.3eV Electronegativity (Pauling): 1.6 Heat of Fusion: 26.4kJ/mol Incompatiblities: (none listed) Ionization Potential First: 6.88 Second: 14.32 Third: 25.04 Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 104 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NIOBIUM Note: temperature and pressure sensitive calculations are based on normal temperature and pressure (20°C @ 1atm). Atomic Mass Average: 92.90638 Boiling Point: 5017K 4744°C 8571°F Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion: 7.31E-06cm/cm/°C (0°C) Conductivity Electrical: 0.0693 106/cm Thermal: 0.537 W/cmK 8 Density: 8.57g/cc @ 300K Description: Shiny white soft transition metal. Elastic Modulus: Bulk: 170/GPa Rigidity: 38/GPa Youngs: 105/GPa Enthalpy of Atomization: 745 kJ/mole @ 25°C Enthalpy of Fusion: 27.2 kJ/mole Enthalpy of Vaporization: 696.6 kJ/mole Flammablity Class: Freezing Point: see melting point Hardness Scale Brinell: 736 MN m-2 Mohs: 6 Vickers: 1320 MN m-2 Heat of Vaporization: 682kJ/mol Melting Point: 2741K 2468°C 4474°F Molar Volume: 10.84 cm3/mole Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid Specific Heat: 0.26J/gK Vapor Pressure = 0.0755Pa@2468°C Regulatory / Health CAS Number: 7440-03-1 OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) No limits set by OSHA OSHA PEL Vacated 1989 No limits set by OSHA NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) No limits set by NIOSH 1 1 www.environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemistry/dictionary/T02.html# Transition%20Metals 9 Columbium was the name given to this element in 1801 by its English discoverer, Charles Hatchet. Niobium (Nb) was the name officially designated by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in 1950. Niobium, in the form of ferroniobium is used worldwide, mostly as an alloying element in steels and in superalloys. Appreciable amounts of columbium in the form of high-purity ferroniobium and nickel niobium are used in nickel, cobalt, and iron-base superalloys for such applications as jet engine components, rocket subassemblies, and heat resisting and combustion equipment. 2 RAW MATERIALS The following information on raw materials, refining and applications is reprinted with permission from the Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center website. The primary mineral from which niobium is obtained is known as pyrochlore. The world's largest deposit is located in Araxá, Brazil and is owned by Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM). The reserves are enough to supply current world demand for about 500 years, about 460 million tons. The mining of weathered ore, running between 2.5 and 3.0% Nb O , is conducted by simple open pit mining without the need for 2 5 drilling and explosives. Approximately 85 to 90% of the niobium industry obtains its niobium ores from sources other than those associated with the mining of tantalum- containing ores. Another pyrochlore mine in Brazil is owned and operated by Anglo American Brasil Mineração Catalão and contains 18 million tonnes at 1.34% niobium oxide. The third major deposit of pyrochlore being actively mined is the Niobec Mine in Quebec, Canada, owned by Cambior, with reserves of 18,000 tonnes. In all three facilities, the pyrochlore mineral is processed by primarily physical processing technology to give a concentrate ranging from 55 to about 60% niobium oxide. These three companies produce about 85% of the world's demand for niobium products, with most of that output being in the form of ferro-niobium with a nominal 60% niobium oxide content, for making high strength, low-alloy steel. Columbite, a mineral with a ratio of Nb O :Ta O ranging from 10:1 to 13:1, occurs in Brazil, Nigeria, and 2 5 2 5 Australia, also other countries in central Africa. Niobium is recovered when the ores are processed for tantalum. Niobium is also found, in very small quantities, in the slags produced from the smelting of some tin ore. 2 U.S. Department of the Interior: U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Information URL: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mit/index.html 10

Niobium also had boundary themes though more intense and destructive than .. permission from the Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center website.
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