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Music in European Thought 1851–1912 PDF

431 Pages·1988·24.573 MB·English
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Contents Preface pagexi Acknowledgments xvii Listofabbreviations xviii Generalintroduction 1 Part1:Germanaestheticsofmusicinthesecondhalfofthe nineteenthcentury 1.1 Musicasanautonomousbeing l \ Introduction l \ E.Hanslick, VomMusikalisch—Schonen (1854) R.Zimmermann,AllgemeineAesthetikalsFormwissenschaft (I865) 40 1.2 Musicasanexpressiveforce SI Introduction 51 R.Wagner, OperandDrama (1851) R.Wagner,‘Beethoven’ (1870) 65 A.W.Ambros,DieGrenzenderMusik andPoesie(1855) 76 F.T.Vischer,AesthetikOder WissenschaftdesSchonen (1857) 82 G. G. Gervinus,HandelandShakespeare (1868) 90 F.Nietzsche,DieGeburtderTrago'die (1872) F.Nietzsche,DerFallWagner(1888) 103 F.vonHausegger,DieMusilzalsAusdruck (I885) 108 H. Kretzschmar, ‘AnregungenzurForderungmusikalischer Hermeneutik’from[ahrbuch derMusikbibliotbekPeters (1903) 114 P.Mics, UberdieTonmalerei(1912) 121 1.3 Theeclectictendency 126 Introduction 12.6 F.Brendel,‘DieAesthetikderTonkunst’ fromNeueZeitscbriftfiir Musik (1857) 129 O. Hostinsky’l,DasMusikaliscb-Scho'neunddasGesamtkunstwerk (I877) I32 H.A. Késtlin,DieTonkunst(I879) 152 G.E.Engel,AesthetikderTonkunst(1884) 159 E.vonHartmann,PhilosopbiedesSchonen (1887) 165 vii viii Contents Part2:AestheticsofmusicinFranceandEngland 2.1 France I79 2.1.I Generalworks I79 Introduction I79 C. Beauquier,Philosophiedelamusique (I865) 182 J. Combarieu,Lesrapportsdelamusiqueetdelapoésie(1894) I97 J. Combarieu,Lamusique,seslois, sonevolution (1907) 210 C. Lalo,Esquissed’uneesthe’tiquemusicalescientifique(I908) 216 2.1.2. TheimpactofWagner 22.2 Introduction . 22.2 H.Berlioz,‘ConcertsdeRichardWagner’ fromJournaldesde’bats (1860) 2.27 C. Baudelaire, ‘RichardWagneret Tannha'useraParis’fromRevue européenne(1861) 7-33 ExtractsfromRevuewagnérienne: 2.42. S.Mallarmé,‘RichardWagner,réveried’unpoétefrancais’ (I885) 242 T. deWyzéwa,‘Lamusiquedescriptive’ (I885) 247 T.deWyzéwa,‘Notessurlamusiquewagnérienne’ (1886) 2.51 E. Hennequin, ‘L’esthétiquedeWagneretladoctrine spencérienne’ (1885) 256 2.2 England 2.60 Introduction 260 E. Gurney, Thepowerofsound(I880) 2.63 Part3:Musicandpositivistthought 3.1 PsychologyofmusicandthetheoryofEinfiiblung(empathy) 2'75 Introduction 7-75 H.vonHelmholtz,DieLehrevonden Tonempfindungen(I863) 280 G.T.Fechner, VorschulederAesthetik (1876) 284 E. Gurney, Thepowerofsound(I880) 292 C. Stumpf,Tonpsychologie(I883) 294 T. Lipps,Asthetik (1903) 299 3.2 Theoriesandspeculationabouttheoriginofmusic 305 Introduction 305 H. Spencer, ‘Theoriginandfunctionofmusic’fromFraser’s Magazine(1857) 309 C.Darwin, Thedescentofman (I871) 315 C.Darwin, Theexpressionoftheemotionsinmanandanimals (I872) 320 R.Wallaschek,Primitivemusic (I893) 32.2. K.Biicher,ArbeitundRhythmus (I896) 37-7 C. Stumpf,DieAnfa'ngederMusik (1911) 334 Contents ix Part4:Bridgebetweenmusictheoryandphilosophyandthe beginningsofmusicologyasanindependentdiscipline Introduction 341 F. Chrysander, ‘VorwortundEinleitung’ fromJahrbiicherfiir musikalische Wissenschaft (I863) 34s G.Adler,‘Umfang,MethodeundZielderMusikwissenschaft’from VierteljahrsschriftffirMusikwissensc/oaft(I885) 348 H.Riemann, Wieho'renwirMusik? (I888) 356 H.Schenker,Harmonielehre (1906) 359 Part5:Newtendenciesattheturnofthecentury Introduction 365 5.I Historicalunderstanding 370 W.Dilthey,‘DasmusikalischeVerstehen’ (c. 1906) 370 W.Dilthey, ‘Mozart’ (6. I906) 375 5.2 CriticistnofthetheoryofEinffihlung 379 M.Dessoir,Asthetikundallgemez'neKunstwissenscbaft(19.06) 379 5.3 Thepastandthefutureofmusic 388 F.Busoni,EntwurfeinerneuenAesthetik derTonkunst(1907) 388 Selectbibliography 395 Index 408 Preface Not unlike a compiler of a dictionary, an editor of an anthology may easily become haunted by the feeling that the more he gathers in, the more material still remains outside his grasp. Any period of intellectual history, if it is to be documented exhaustively and meaningfully, requires that attention be paid to a variety of personalities and works and not only to the thought of the most distinguished intellectual lights of the time. Numerous lesser figures who often voiced short-lived though urgent concerns of a small intellectual com- munity, followers of a belief, belligerents in critical disputes - all should have their say. Such a complexity of critical and philosophical themes is easy to recognize in any age but is exceedingly difficult to document. It may therefore sound like a veiled admission of defeat if at the outset I say that it is not the aim of this volume to paint a complete picture, but rather to offer a repre- sentative sample of some of the main tendencies in the aesthetics of music during the second half of the nineteenth century. In chronological terms the volume succeeds Peter le Huray's and James Day's Music and aesthetics in the eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. The accent is on the material from the second half of the nineteenth century and the first decade or so of the twentieth century which in its themes and concerns still belongs to the intellectual currents of the preceding one. Whereas le Huray and Day felt able to construct their Music and aesthetics around the concept of romanticism as a unifying factor of an extended period, such a central theme is lacking in the second half of the century. A style or an artistic trend in the making initially acts cohesively and draws to the central current a wealth of individual concerns. The full maturity, if a notion of such neat flow can at all be accepted as a historical norm, brings to the fore the feeling of fragmentation and parting of ways. Assuming a threefold division into the nascent, classical and declining phase of romantic- ism, Ernst Kurth saw the transition into the last phase as a long-drawn crisis, the examples of which were for him provided by Wagner and Tristan und Isolde.* More recently H. G. Schenk, Nietzsche's spirit peeping over his shoulder, identified 'a histrionic element in Wagner' which to him suggested 'a perversion or even a travesty of Romanticism'.2" Carl Dahlhaus put it 1 Ernst Kurth, Rotnantische Harmonik und ihre Krise in Wagners 'Tristan' (Berlin 1920). z H. G. Schenk, The Mind of the European Romantics (London 1966), p. 212. xi

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