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Modern Art 1851-1929: Capitalism and Representation PDF

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■ T -TV St ;£ History of Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2019 with funding from Kahle/Austin Foundation https://archive.org/details/modernart18511920000bret Modern Art 1851-1929 Oxford History of Art Dr Richard Brettell has taught at the painting, photography, architecture, and University of Texas, Northwestern Uni¬ museology. His books include Pissarro versity, and Harvard University and is and Pontoise: The Painter and the Landscape currently Professor of Aesthetic Studies (Yale, 1990) which won the Charles Rufus at the University of Texas at Dallas. Formerly Morey Award, and, with Caroline B. Searle Curator of European Painting at the Brettell, Painters and Peasants in the igth Art Institute of Chicago and McDermott Century (Geneva, 1983). He was also curator Director of the Dallas Museum of Art, he and co-author of A Day in the Country: has been involved with museum scholarship Impressionism and the French Landscape (New for more than twenty years, publishing arti¬ York, 1984) and The Art of Paul Gauguin cles and catalogues in the history of modern (New York, 1988). f -' > - Oxford History of Art Modern Art 1851-1929 Capitalism and Representation Richard R. Brettell 'ary TRENT UN L <Sil Y Ap/O OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford0x2 6dp Oxford NewYork Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Bombay Buenos Aires Calcutta Cape Town Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madras Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi Paris Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press © Richard Brett ell iggg First published iggg by Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the proper permission in writing of Oxford University Press. Within the UK, exceptions are allowed in respect ofanyfair dealing for thepurpose ofresearch or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, ig88, or in the case ofreprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms and in other countries should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without thepublishers prior consent in anyform ofbinding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a sim ilar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available o-ig-28422 o-X Pbk 10 98765432 Picture Research by Elisabeth Agate Printed in Hong Kong on acid-free paper by C&C Offset Printing Co., Ltd For George Heard Hamilton and Peter Gay In memory of David Meyerson Contents Introduction The Great Exhibition of 1851, London i Paris: the capital of modern art 3 New technology 3 The beginnings of modern art 3 PARTI REALISM TO SURREALISM 9 Realism 13 Impressionism 13 Symbolism 19 Post-Impressionism 21 Neo-Impressionism 24 Synthetism 26 TheNabis 27 The Fauves 29 Expressionism 30 Cubism 32 Futurism 33 Orphism 36 Vorticism 38 Suprematism/Constructivism 39 Neo-Plasticism 40 Dada 42 Purism 43 Surrealism 44 The ‘-ism’ problem 46 vii PART II THE CONDITIONS FOR MODERN ART 49 Chapter 1 Urban Capitalism 51 Paris and the birth of the modern city 52 Capitalist society 56 The commodification of art 58 The modern condition 60 Chapter 2 Modernity, Representation, and the Accessible Image 65 The art museum 67 Temporary exhibitions 70 Lithography 72 Photography 74 Conclusion 78 PART III THE ARTIST’S RESPONSE 81 Chapter 3 Representation, Vision, and ‘Reality’: The Art of Seeing 83 The human eye 86 Transparency and unmediated modernism 87 Surface fetishism and unmediated modernism 89 Photography and unmediated modernism 92 Beyond the oil sketch 95 Cubism 97 Chapter 4 Image/Modernism and the Graphic Traffic io5 The Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood no Puvis de Chavannes and Gustave Moreau: image/modernism outside the avant-garde in Image/modernism outside France 114 Exhibitions ol the avant-garde 116 Fragmentation, dislocation, and recombination 120 PART IV ICONOLOGY 125 Introduction 127 Chapter 5 Sexuality and the Body Ffi Manet’s bodies !3I viii CONTENTS

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