412 Pages·1983·9.82 MB·English

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A project of Volmteers in Asia Microhydropower Handbook, Volume 2 by EG&G Idaho for the U.S. Dept. of Energy Published by: National Technical Information Service (NTIS) 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, Virginia 22161 USA Available from: same as above Reproduced by permission. Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document. MICROHYDROPOWER HANDBOOK: VOLUME 2 k EM2 Idaho, Incorporated Idaho Falls, ID Jan 83 DE83-006648 U.S. DEPARTMENT DF CDMMERCE Nsstional Technical information Serviee IDO-13107-Vol.2 (DE830066981 Distribution Category UC-97e MICROHYDROPOWER HANDBOOK Volume 2 3. 0. McKinney, EG&G Idaho Prof. C. C. Warnick, University of Idaho B. Bradley, Braley Engineering . J. Dodds, EG&G Idaho T. B. McLaughlin, EG&G Idaho C. L. Miller, EG&G Idaho G. N. Rinehart, EG&G Idaho 6. L. Sommers, EG&G Idaho Published January 1983 EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office Under Doe Contract No. DE-ACO7-761001570 Published by the Technical Information Center U.S. Department of Energy REPRODUCED BY NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMEN OF COMMERCE SPRINGFIELD. VA. 22161 . 4 . DISCLAIMER “This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infsinge privately owned rights Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or smite by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsemenr, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessadly state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.” This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22 16 1. Codes are used for pricing all publications. The code is determined by the number of pages in the publication. Information pertaining to the pricing codes can be found in the current issues of the following publications, which are generally available in most libraries: Energy Research Abstmcrs, (E:zW); Govemmenr Reporrs Announcements and Index (GRA and I); Scientific and Technical Abstract Reports (STAR); and publication, NTIS-PR-360 available from (NTIS) at the above address. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the following people and organizations for their contribution to this handbook: A. Batra, C. Grube and E. Jewel1 of Centrac Associates, Inc.; G. L. Smith of Appropriate Technology; and J. Volkman of Intermountain Energy Systems For supplying draft material for the handbook. J. T. Parker, EG&G Idaho, technical writer; and S. C. Hall, EG&G Idaho, ill ustrator. Meinikheim Machines, Banks GSA International Corporat Idaho; and on, Katonah, New York For reviewing the handbook in draft form. K. Grover of GSA International Corporation Who supplied much practical design information, and whose experience in the hydropower field is reflected throughout the handbook. . A-l A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 APPENDIX A TECHNICAL SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF THE POWER EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Al-l ESTIMATING MINUMUM STREAM FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AZ-1 RAINFALL RUNOFF CORRELATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..I..... A3-1 STREAM FLOW PROJECTIONS WHERE A GAGE CORRELATION DOES . NOT EXIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A4-1 A-4.1 Category 1 Developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A4-1 A-4.2 Category 2 Developers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A4-3 ECONGMIC ANALYSIS . . ..a........................................ A5-1 A-5.1 A-5.2 A-5.3 A-5.4 A-5.5 A-5.6 A-5.7 A-5.8 A-5-9 A-5.10 A-5.11 Capital Cost Estimation .............................. A5-1 Revenue Estimation ................................... A5-4 Operating Cost Estimation ............................ A5-5 Depreciation ......................................... A5-6 Calculation of Mortgage Payments (Principal and Interest) ............................................ A5-7 Taxes ................................................ A5-10 Preparation of the Cash Flow Analysis ................ A5-11 Benefit-Cost Analysis ................................ A5-12 Simple and Discounted Payback ........................ A5-14 Sensitivity Analysis ................................. A5-14 Alternative Energy Source ............................ A5-15 ELECTRICAL THEORY ............................................. A6-1 A-6.1 Electrical Terminology ............................... A6-1 .A-6.2 Generator and Motor Terminology ...................... A6-8 A-6.3 Generator Theory ..................................... A6-16 A-6.3.1 The Single-Phase Generator .................. A6-17 A-6.3.2 The Three-Phase Generator ................... A6-21 A-i A-6.4 A-6.5 A-6.6 A-6.7 A-6.8 Synchronous and Induction Generators ................. A6-22 A-6.4.1 Synchronous Generators ...................... A6-22 A-6.4.2 Voltage Regulation .......................... A6-26 A-6.4.3 Induction Generators ........................ A6-28 A-6.4.4 Power Factor of an Induction Generator ...... A6-29 Generator Voltage and Connections .................... A6-30 A-6.5.1 Single-Phase, Three-Wire System ............. A6-31 A-6.5.2 Three-Phase, Four-Wire Wye System ........... A6-31 A-6.5.3 Three-Phase, Three-Wire Delta System ........ A6-32 A-6.5.4 Three-Phase, Four-Wire Wye System ........... A6-32 Terminal Connections ................................. A6-34 Nameplate Data ....................................... A6-34 Generator Heat and Insulation Ratings ................ A6-43 A-6.8.1 Generator Heat .............................. A6-43 A-6.8.2 Instilation Rating ........................... A6-43 A-7 TURBINE SETTING AND SPECIFIC SPEED ............................ A7-1 A-7.1 Specific Speed ....................................... A7-1 A-7.2 Turbine Setting .............................. . ....... A7-2 FIGURES Al-l Pool-to-pool head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Al-l Al-2 A2-1 A3-1 A3-2 A3-3 A3-4 A3-5 A5-1 Steps in the economic analysis procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A5-2 A6-1 Single-phase AC voltage wave, one cycle .................O..... A6-2 Elevation, pressure, and velocity head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Al-3 Estimating minimum stream flow ............................ ... A2-2 Hell Roaring Creek drainage basin and vicinity ................ A3-2 Map of Hell Roaring Creek drainage basin . . . ...*.*.*........*.. A3-3 Flow duration curve for Pack River near Colburn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A3-10 Flow duration curve for Qi/Qp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A3-14 Flaw duration curve for the proposed microhydropower site at the mouth of Hell Roaring Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A3-16 A-ii A6-2 Three-Phase AC voltage wave, one cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-3 I, , + A3-3 Power factor illustrated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-6 A6-4 Wye connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-8 A6-5 Delta connection .,..........jiijii,*..............,........... A6-9 A6-6 Lines of magnectic flux around a bar magnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-9 A6-7 Magnetizing current components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-14 A6-8 Terminal connections of a 230/460-volt, single-phase generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._.................................. A6-16 A6-9 Generation of electricity in a magnetic field . . . ..a......... . A6-17 A6-10 Simplified diagram of a single-phase generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-19 AS-11 Conductor loop rotating in a magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-20 A6-12 Variation in voltage produced as conductor loop rotates in magnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-21 A6-13 Simplified diagram of three-phase generator . . . . . . . . . . ..a...... A6-22 A6-14 Relation of voltage in each phase of three-phase power *..*..a. A6-23 A6-15 Cutaway view of self-excited synchronous generator ............ A6-25 A6-16 Schematic diagram of electrical connections for a self-excited synchronous generator ............................ A6-25 A6-17 Cutaway view of externally-excited synchronous generator ...... A6-27 A6-18 Schematic diagram of electrical connections for an externally-excited synchronous generator .,.................... A6-27 A6-19 Cutaway view of induction generator ........................... A6-29 A6-20 Single-phase three-wire system ................................ A6-33 A6-21 120/208-volt, three-phase, four-wire wye system ............... A6-33 A6-22 277/480-volt, three-phase, four-wire wye system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-33 A6-23 Three-phase, three-wire delta system .......................... A6-35 A6-24 Threerphase, four-wire delta system ........................... A6-35 A6-25 Terminal connections for 120/240 volts, single phase .......... A6-35 A-iii A6-26 A6-27 A6-28 A6-29 A6-30 A6-31 A6-32 A7-1 A7-2 A3-1 A3-2 A3-3 A5-1 A5-2 A5-3 A5-4 A5-5 A7-1 87-2 Terminal connections for 120/208 volts, three phase .,,..,..,.. A6-36 Terminal connections for 277/480 volts, three phase . . . . . . . .._. A6-36 Terminal connections for 240 volts, three phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-37 Terminal connections for 480 volts, three phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-37 Nameplate for a self-excited, self-regulated synchronous alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~.".......................~.. A6-39 Nameplate for a brushless, synchronous alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . A6-41 Nameplate for an induction motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..D............. A6-42 Turbine setting coeffecient definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A7-5 Critical sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A7-7 TABLES Values of planimetered areas from normal annual precipitation map of Hell Roaring Creek drainage .*.........*.* A3-5 Bata for flow duration values at various exceedance percentages, dimensionless values of flow duration for Pack River near Colburn, and the extrapolated values for Hell Roaring Creek at its mouth ...... Flow duration data for the Colburn gagi Pack River ........................... Capital cost estimate ................ . . . . ..*..*..*.... ,,.,,.. A3-11 ng station on the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..a A3-12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A5-3 Average rate for electricity in different areas of the U.S. ... A5-4 Operating costs ....................... . ....................... A5-6 Interest factor for mortgage payment calculation .............. A5-8 Present-value interest rate factor ............................ A5-13 Atmosphere pressure at various altitudes ...................... A7-4 Vapor pressure of water at various temperatures ............... A7-4 A-iv APPENDIX A TECHNICAL SUPPORT This group of appendices presents technical information in support of the main body of the handbook. A-l . APPENDIX A-l' DEVELOPMENT OF THE POWER EQUATION In Section 2.2, head was defined as the vertical change in water elevation. In hydropower, head is a convenient way to indicate the theoretical energy available from any given amount of water. Assume that the given amount is equal to 1 pound, slightly more than 1 pint. If the pound of water is at the top of the dam in Figure Al-l, the energy of that pound of water is 20 foot-pounds, and is refer& 'co as potential energy or elevation head (assuming no friction loss). Elevation + 20 ft -- - -- ilpstream pool behind dam Pool-to-pool head = 20-ft difference be?ween upper elevation and lower elevation I INEL 2 1277 Figure Al-l. Pool-to-pool head. Ai-l Thus, since E=Wxh where E = energy in foot-pounds W = amount of water expressed as weight in pounds h = head in feet, energy = 1 pound x 20 feet = 20 foot-pounds. (Al-l) If the pound of water flows over the dam and into the stream below, the energy available at the bottom of the dam is still 20 foot-pounds (assuming no friction loss). The pound of water flowing over the dam continues to increase in velocity until it reaches the stream below. This increase in velocity is called kinetic energy, or velocity head. Similarly, if a pipe penetrated through the dam 20 feet below the upper pool surface, a pound of water about to enter the pipe would have 20 foot-pounds of pressure head. The pressure is a result of the weight of ve the pipe (Figure Al-2). 20 feet of water abo to remember that head is the theoretical energy iven amount of water that changes elevation [Equation the effect of friction, the realized energy will always be less than the theoretical energy. It is important available from any g (Al-l)]. Because of Energy is defined in Equation (Al-l) as an amount of water multiplied by the head. In the equation, the amount of water was expressed as a unit of weight. However, the amount of water is usually expressed as a volume--for example, gallons or cubic feet--not weight. The standard unit for volume in hydropower is the cubic foot. Al-2 Elevation + 20 ft 1 lb of water at the top of the dam has net-lb of elevation head Upstream pool behind dam I Pool-to-pool head = 20.ft difference between upper elevation and lower elevati 1 lb of water at the pipe entrance has 5 ~ygfLg-J +. 20 ft-lb of ‘$Q qaQ$; 0” \ .s rrA -- pressure head evation + 00 ft I 1 lb of water at the bottom of the / dam has 20 ft-lb of velocity head.’ on INEL 2 1276 Figure Al-2. Elevation, pressure, and velocity head. Weight is the volume of an object times its specific weight (weight density): w=axv where (Al-2) w = weight in pounds iY = specific weight density of the object in pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3) Al-3 V = volume of the object in ft3. . Solving Equation (Al-2) for specific weight: W =- g V’ Since 1 cubic foot of water contains 7.481 gallons (see Figure 2-2 in Section 2 of the handbook) and weighs 62.4 pounds, the specific weight of 'water ('d) can be expressed as 62.4 lb/ft3. Equation (Al-2) for weight (W = X x V) can be substituted into Equation (Al-l) for energy (E = W x h) to yield E='dxVxh (Al-3) where E = energy in foot-pounds (ft-lb) If = specific weight of water, 62.4 lb/ft3 V = volume of water in ft3 h = head in feet. If the volume of water over the dam in Figure Al-2 was 1 ft3 instead of 1 pound, the energy available would'be 1,248 foot-pounds. From Equation (Al-3): E = 62.4 ib ft3 x 1 ft3 x 20 ft E = 62.4 x 1 x 20 = 1248 ft-lb Al-4 . Work is the transfer of energy from one physical system to another. in hydropower, work is the transfer of water energy to mechanical shaft energy- in a turbine. Since work is the transfer of energy, the units for work are the same as energy (foot-pounds). Power is the time rate of doing work (transferring energy). From Equation (Al-3j, we know that energy equals water specific weight times water volume times head (E = X x V x h). To calculate theoretical power, 'energy must be divided by the time in which the work is performed: axVxh .Pth = t where 'th = is = V = h = t = Equation (2-l) in Section 2 of the handbook defines flow as the amount of water pass ing a point in a given time: Q ;. =- (Al-4) theoretical power in foot-pounds per second (ft-lb/set) specific weight of water, 62.4 lb/ft3 volume in ft3 head in feet time in seconds. Equation (Al-4) can be rewritten, using flow (Q = V z t): P =XxQxh Gw (Al-5) i Al-5

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