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331 Pages·2006·2.21 MB·English
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Living the French Revolution, 1789-99 Peter McPhee Living the French Revolution, 1789–99 Also by Peter McPhee COLLIOURE ET LA RÉVOLUTION FRANÇAISE,1789–1815 (Perpignan, le Publicateur, 1989) ‘PANSY’:A Life of Roy Douglas Wright (Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1999) REVOLUTION AND ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTHERN FRANCE: Peasant, Lords, and Murder in the Corbières, 1780–1830 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1999) LES SEMAILLES DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE DANS LES PYRÉNÉES-ORIENTALES, 1846–1852: Classes Sociales, Culture et Politique (Perpignan, L’Olivier, 1995) A SOCIAL HISTORY OF FRANCE, 1780–1880(London and New York, Routledge, 1992) A SOCIAL HISTORY OF FRANCE, 1780–1914,Enlarged Second Edition (London and New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004) THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 1789–1799(Oxford University Press, 2002) THE POLITICS OF RURAL LIFE: Political Mobilization in the French Countryside 1846–1852 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1992) UNE COMMUNAUTÉ LANGUEDOCIENNE DANS I’HISTOIRE: Gabian 1760–1960 (Nîmes, Lacour, 2001) Living the French Revolution, 1789–99 Peter McPhee © Peter McPhee 2006 All rights reserved.No reproduction,copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced,copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright,Designs and Patents Act 1988,or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency,90 Tottenham Court Road,London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The author has asserted his right to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. First published in 2006 by PALGRAVE MACMILLAN Houndmills,Basingstoke,Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue,New York,N.Y.10010 Companies and representatives throughout the world PALGRAVE MACMILLAN is the global academic imprint of the Palgrave Macmillan division of St.Martin’s Press,LLC and of Palgrave Macmillan Ltd. Macmillan® is a registered trademark in the United States,United Kingdom and other countries.Palgrave is a registered trademark in the European Union and other countries. ISBN-13:978–0–333–99739–0 hardback ISBN-10:0–333–99739–5 hardback This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data McPhee,Peter,1948– Living the French Revolution,1789–99 / Peter McPhee. p.cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0–3 33–99739–5 (cloth) 1.France––History––Revolution,1789–1799.2.France––Politics and government––1789–1799.I.Title. DC148.M454 2007 944.04––dc22 2006044833 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe Ltd,Chippenham and Eastbourne For Tom and Kit, Anton and Suzy Map 1 France – physical Contents List of Figures and Maps viii Acknowledgements ix List of Abbreviations x Introduction 1 1 Describing the Old Regime 11 2 Elation and Anxiety: The Revolutionary Year 35 3 Reimagining Space and Power, 1789–91 55 4 Without Christ or King, 1791 77 5 Deadly Divisions, 1791–92 96 6 In the Fires of War, 1792–93 114 7 The Experience of Terror, 1793–94 132 8 Settling Scores: The Thermidorian Reaction, 1794–95 163 9 A New Régime and Its Discontents, 1795–99 178 Conclusion – A Revolution for the People? 201 Notes 229 Bibliography 265 Index 302 vii List of Figures and Maps Figures 1 Arson attacks on châteaux, July – August 1789 42 2 Arrest and interrogation of a noble, 1789 43 3 Hunting priests c. 1790 70 4 Stone carving of the Bastille c. 1790 71 5 Arrest of Louis at Varennes, 21 June 1791 88 6 The collapse of respect for the King 89 7 Revolutionary currency 106 8 Patriotic plate, 1793 107 9 Membership card for the Jacobin club of Dax (Landes) 150 10 The insignia of Mont-Égalité (Seine-et-Marne) 151 11 The new civic virtues, 1797 188 12 The patriotic farmer 189 Maps 1 France – physical vi 2 Provinces in the 1780s 17 3 Departments and their capitals 68 4 The war in the Vendée: the battle for Cholet, September 1793 158 5 Extent of illegal clearance of common land 219 viii Acknowledgements Illustrations Cover – École française. Portrait de femme, dit La Maraîchère. Vers 1795. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon. Photo Alain Basset. 1 Châteaux incendiés au moment de la Grande Peur. Juillet-Août 1789. Gravure. Paris, musée Carnavalet. FA-13288B © Collection Roger- Viollet. 2 Attaque de la voiture d’un aristocrate, août 1789. Gravure, B.N. FA-12466 © Collection Roger-Viollet. 3 ‘La chasse aux corbeaux’. Gravure antireligieuse. Paris, musée Carnavalet. FA-26084 © Collection Roger-Viollet. 4 Stone carving of the Bastille above the doorway of a house in Camps- sur-l’Agly (Aude). Photograph by Fronza Woods-Pleasance. 5 Arrestation de Louis XVI (1754–93), roi de France, et de la famille royale à Varennes le 21 juin 1791. Gravure, Musée Carnavalet, Paris. FA-13323 © Collection Roger-Viollet. 6 L’Entrée Franche: Je me suis ruiné pour l’engraisser, la fin du compte je ne sait qu’en faire. PMVP/Cliché: Habouzit. Musée Carnavalet HIST PC 016 C-G 25670. 7 Assignats. 1789–99. RVB-06884 © Collection Roger-Viollet. 8 Plat: Je suis bougrement patriote. PMVP/Cliché: Svartz, Denis. Musée Carnavalet C 0451. 9 Cocarde, carte au nom de la Société Amis de la Constitution de 1793 Commune de Dax. PMVP/ Cliché: Andreani. Musée Carnavalet OM 0176. 10 Société populaire de Mont Égalité, ci-devant Faremoutier: Unité- indivisibilité, fraternité ou la mort. [Meaux: s.n. 1793 ou 1794] . Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Hennin 11831. 11 Marie Royer, vivandière de la 51e demi-Brigade. 22 ventôse an 5. Labrousse del et sculp [Paris: sn, entre 1796 et 1805] Extrait de Grasset Saint-Sauveur. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. QB1-1797. 12 Jaque Guillon. Bibliothèque Nationale de France. LF-9C 4o. Parts of Chapter 1 were published as ‘“The misguided greed of peasants”? Popular attitudes to the environment in the Revolution of 1789’, French Historical Studies24 (2001), 247–269. ix

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