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How Learning Works PDF

328 Pages·2014·2.33 MB·English
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(Continued from front fl ap) Praise for How Learning Works foster it. This vital resource is grounded Ambrose in learning theory and based on research “ How Learning Works is the perfect title for this excellent book. Drawing upon new Bridges evidence, while being easy to understand and research in psychology, education, and cognitive science, the authors have demystifi ed DiPietro apply to college teaching. a complex topic into clear explanations of seven powerful learning principles. Full of Lovett great ideas and practical suggestions, all based on solid research evidence, this book Norman is essential reading for instructors at all levels who wish to improve their students’ Susan A. Ambrose is associate provost for learning.” education, director of the Eberly Center — Barbara Gross Davis, assistant vice chancellor for educational development, University of for Teaching Excellence, and teaching California, Berkeley, and author, Tools for Teaching SH Any conversation about effective teaching professor in the Department of History at e vO must begin with a consideration of how Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, e “ This book is a must-read for every instructor, new or experienced. Although I have been n students learn. However, instructors may fi nd Pennsylvania. teaching for almost thirty years, as I read this book I found myself resonating with many RW a gap between resources that focus on the e of its ideas, and I discovered new ways of thinking about teaching.” s technical research on learning and those that Michael W. Bridges is director of faculty e — Eugenia T. Paulus, professor of chemistry, North Hennepin Community College, and 2008 U.S. a provide practical classroom strategies. How development at UPMC St. Margaret Hospital Community Colleges Professor of the Year from The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of rcL Learning Works provides the bridge for such in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Teaching and the Council for Advancement and Support of Education hE a gap. - BA Michele DiPietro is associate director for as In this volume, the authors introduce seven graduate programs at the Eberly Center and “ Tinhaacnckes ysoiub lCe atorn thegoisee Mofe ullso wnh foor a mrea nkoint gle aacrcneisnsgib slcei ewnhtiastt sh.a Yso purre fvoicouuss loyn b teheen e ssence edR general principles of learning, distilled from instructor in the Department of Statistics at PN the research literature as well as from of learning combined with concrete examples of the daily challenges of teaching and Carnegie Mellon. clear tactical strategies for faculty to consider is a welcome work. I will recommend this rin twenty-seven years of experience working book to all my colleagues.” cIN one-on-one with college faculty. They have Marsha C. Lovett is associate director for ip drawn on research from a breadth of perspec- — Catherine M. Casserly, senior partner, The Carnegie Foundation for the l faculty development at the Eberly Center Advancement of Teaching esG 7 tives (cognitive, developmental, and social and associate teaching professor in the f psychology; educational research; anthro- Department of Psychology at Carnegie or pology; demographics; and organizational Mellon. “ As you read about each of the seven basic learning principles in this book, you will SW Research-Based Principles behavior) to identify a set of key principles fi nd advice that is grounded in learning theory, based on research evidence, relevant to m underlying learning—from how effective Marie K. Norman is a teaching consultant college teaching, and easy to understand. The authors have extensive knowledge and arO organization enhances retrieval and use experience in applying the science of learning to college teaching, and they graciously t and research associate at the Eberly Center T for Smart Teaching of information to what impacts motivation. and adjunct professor of anthropology at share it with you in this organized and readable book.” eaR These principles provide instructors with an — From the Foreword by Richard E. Mayer, professor of psychology, University of California, Santa Carnegie Mellon. cK understanding of student learning that can Barbara; coauthor, e-Learning and the Science of Instruction; and author, Multimedia Learning h help them see why certain teaching approach- inS es are or are not supporting student learning, The Eberly Center for Teaching g generate or refi ne teaching approaches and Excellence at Carnegie Mellon University strategies that more effectively foster student was created in 1982 with a mission to distill Susan A. Ambrose learning in specifi c contexts, and transfer and the research on learning for faculty and EDUCATION/HIGHER apply these principles to new courses. graduate students and to collaborate with Michael W. Bridges | Michele DiPietro them to design and implement meaningful For anyone who wants to improve his or her educational experiences. The center’s work www.josseybass.com Marsha C. Lovett | Marie K. Norman students’ learning, it is crucial to understand is based on the idea that combining the how that learning works and how to best science and art of teaching empowers college faculty to create the conditions for students to learn and, through this Jacket design byJudy Brooks FOREWORD BY RICHARD E. MAYER and Michael Cook (Continued on back fl ap) learning, transform their world. How Learning Works How Learning Works Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching Susan A. Ambrose, Michael W. Bridges, Michele DiPietro, Marsha C. Lovett, Marie K. Norman Foreword by Richard E. Mayer Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741—www.josseybass.com The book is based on the seven “Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning,” which are used with permission of Carnegie Mellon University’s Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence. Figures created by Judy Brooks. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions. Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifi cally disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fi tness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profi t or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3986, or fax 317-572-4002. Jossey-Bass also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data How learning works : seven research-based principles for smart teaching / Susan A. Ambrose . . . [et al.] ; foreword by Richard E. Mayer. – 1st ed. p. cm. – (The Jossey-Bass higher and adult education series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-48410-4 (cloth) 1. Effective teaching–Case studies. 2. Educational innovations–Case studies. 3. School improvement programs–Case studies. 4. Learning, Psychology of–Case studies. I. Ambrose, Susan A. II. Title: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. LB1025.3.H68 2010 371.102–dc22 2010003939 Printed in the United States of America FIRST EDITION HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 T H E J O S S E Y  B A S S H I G H E R A N D A D U LT E D U C AT I O N S E R I E S CO N T E N T S List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits ix Foreword xiii Richard E. Mayer Acknowledgments xvii About the Authors xix Introduction Bridging Learning Research and Teaching Practice 1 1 How Does Students’ Prior Knowledge Affect Their Learning? 10 2 How Does the Way Students Organize Knowledge Affect Their Learning? 40 3 What Factors Motivate Students to Learn? 66 4 How Do Students Develop Mastery? 91 5 What Kinds of Practice and Feedback Enhance Learning? 121 6 Why Do Student Development and Course Climate Matter for Student Learning? 153 7 How Do Students Become Self-Directed Learners? 188 Conclusion Applying the Seven Principles to Ourselves 217 vii Contents Appendices Appendix A What Is Student Self-Assessment and How Can We Use It? 225 Appendix B What Are Concept Maps and How Can We Use Them? 228 Appendix C What Are Rubrics and How Can We Use Them? 231 Appendix D What Are Learning Objectives and How Can We Use Them? 244 Appendix E What Are Ground Rules and How Can We Use Them? 248 Appendix F What Are Exam Wrappers and How Can We Use Them? 251 Appendix G What Are Checklists and How Can We Use Them? 255 Appendix H What Is Reader Response/Peer Review and How Can We Use It? 257 References 261 Name Index 285 Subject Index 291 viii

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