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more information - www.cambridge.9781107031067 Early Modern Europe, 1450–1789 The second edition of this best-selling textbook is thoroughly updated to include expanded coverage of the late eighteenth century and the Enlightenment, and incorporates recent advances in gender history, global connections, and cul- tural analysis. It features summaries, timelines, maps, illustrations and discus- sion questions to support the student. Enhanced online content and sections on sources and methodology give students the tools they need to study early modern European history. Leading historian Merry Wiesner-Hanks skilfully balances breadth and depth of coverage to create a strong narrative, paying par- ticular attention to the global context of European developments. She integrates discussion of gender, class, regional, and ethnic differences across the entirety of Europe and its overseas colonies as well as the economic, political, religious and cultural history of the period. Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks is Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee and an experienced textbook author. Her recent books include Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe (third edition, Cambridge, 2008), Christianity and Sexuality in the Early Modern World: Regulating Desire, Reform- ing Practice (second edition, 2010) andGender in History: Global Perspectives (second edition, 2010). the cambridge history of europe The Cambridge History of Europe is an innovative textbook series covering the whole of European history from c . 600 to the present day. The series is aimed at fi rst-year undergraduates and above and volumes in the series will serve both as indispensable works of synthesis and as original interpretations of the European past. Each volume will integrate political, economic, religious, social, cultural, intellectual and gender history in order to shed new light on the themes and developments that have been central to the formation of Europe. Volume I, Part 1 covers the period from the end of antiquity to the twelfth century and Volume I, Part 2 takes the story to the fl ourishing of the Renaissance. Volume II looks at the period from the development of printing in the 1450s to the French Revolution, Volume III surveys the forging of modern Europe from 1789 to the First World War and fi nally Volume IV examines the period from 1914 to 2000. The fi ve books will combine chrono- logical and thematic approaches to the past, will survey Europe in its entirety, from the Atlantic to Russia’s Urals, and will situate European developments within a global context. Each volume will also feature boxes, illustrations, maps, timelines, and guides to further reading as well as a companion website with further primary source and illustrative materials. volumes in the series: I Part 1 Europe from Antiquity to the Twelfth Century MATTHEW INNES I Part 2 Medieval Europe, 1100–1450 ROBERT SWANSON II Early Modern Europe, 1450–1789 MERRY E. WIESNER-HANKS III The Making of Modern Europe, 1789–1919 SIMON DIXON IV The Twentieth Century, 1914–2000 GEOFF ELEY cambridge history of europe Early Modern Europe 1450–1789 SECOND EDITION Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb28ru, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107643574 © Merry Wiesner-Hanks 2006, 2 013 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2 006 Reprinted six times Second edition 2 013 Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by the MPG Books Group A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data Wiesner, Merry E., 1952– author. Early modern Europe, 1450–1789 / Merry Wiesner-Hanks. – Second edition. p. cm. – (Cambridge history of Europe ; v. 2) Includes index. isbn978-1-107-03106-7 (hardback) – isbn978-1-107-64357-4 (paperback) 1. Europe – History – 1492–1648. 2. Europe – History – 1648–1789. 3. Europe – Civilization. I. Title. d203.w54 2013 940.2′2 – dc23 2012037578 isbn978-1-107-03106-7 (hardback) isbn978-1-107-64357-4 (paperback) Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Contents List of illustrations x List of maps xiii List of source boxes xiv List of methods and analysis boxes xvi Acknowledgments xvii Introduction 1 Structure of the book 6 Sources for early modern history 8 Chapter summary 14 Questions 15 Further reading 15 PART I 17 1 Europe in the world of 1450 18 Travel beyond Europe 21 Individuals in society 27 Politics and power 30 Cultural and intellectual life 35 Religious institutions, ideas, and practices 38 Economics and technology 43 Chapter summary 47 Questions 48 Further reading 49 2 Individuals in society, 1450–1600 50 The body 53 The life cycle: childhood and youth 59 vi contents The life cycle: sexuality 62 The life cycle: marriage 68 The life cycle: widowhood and old age 72 The life cycle: death 75 Family, kin, and community networks 78 Chapter summary 83 Questions 84 Further reading 84 3 Politics and power, 1450–1600 86 Military technology and organization 90 Standing armies and navies 94 Taxes, bureaucracies, and marital politics 97 The British Isles 99 France 103 Spain and Portugal 106 The Holy Roman Empire 113 The Ottoman Empire 116 Eastern and northern Europe 117 Italy 119 Power at the local level 121 Chapter summary 122 Questions 124 Further reading 124 4 Cultural and intellectual life, 1450–1600 126 Schools and education 129 Political theory 135 Humanism 138 Vernacular literature and drama 144 Music and art 149 Chapter summary 159 Questions 160 Further reading 160 5 Religious reform and consolidation, 1450–1600 162 The early Reformation 166 The Reformation in England 172 contents vii The radical Reformation 174 Social change and the Reformation 178 Religious wars 180 Calvinism 183 The Catholic Reformation 186 Later religious wars 192 Chapter summary 196 Questions 197 Further reading 198 6 Economics and technology, 1450–1600 200 Capitalism, economic theory, and population growth 203 Late medieval agriculture 206 Rural developments in western Europe 210 Neo-serfdom and slavery in eastern Europe 213 Mining and metallurgy 216 Cloth and commerce 217 Banking and money-lending 220 Urban life 224 Poverty and crime 228 Chapter summary 233 Questions 234 Further reading 234 7 Europe in the world, 1450–1600 236 Indian Ocean connections 241 Chinese and Portuguese voyages 243 Columbus’s background and voyages 245 Early voyagers after Columbus 249 Europeans in Asia: merchants and missionaries 254 Europeans in Africa: slavers and sugar growers 258 Europeans in the Americas: conquerors and miners 263 Global connections and the Columbian exchange 267 Chapter summary 272 Part summary, 1450–1600 273 Questions 274 Further reading 275 viii contents PART II 277 8 Individuals in society, 1600–1789 279 The social body: orders and classes 281 The writing body: letters and diaries 288 The inner body: emotions and passions 292 The studied body: anatomy and medical theory 295 The treated body: medicine and public health 298 The reproducing body: childbirth and contraception 302 The deviant body: sex crimes and scandals 304 Chapter summary 310 Questions 311 Further reading 312 9 Politics and power, 1600–1789 314 Absolutism in theory and practice 317 Warfare and alliances 321 France 328 Spain and Portugal 335 The British Isles 338 The Dutch Republic 344 The Ottoman Empire 347 Hapsburg lands 349 Brandenburg-Prussia 351 Sweden and Poland 352 Russia 356 Enlightened rulers 358 Chapter summary 360 Questions 361 Further reading 361 10 Cultural and intellectual life, 1600–1789 364 Learned societies, salons, and newspapers 368 Ancient authorities and new methods in science 373 The revolution in astronomy 376 Mathematics, motion, and the mind of God 378 Reason, knowledge, and property 381 Natural rights and their limits in the Enlightenment 383 Literature and drama 389 Art and architecture 393

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