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"Deuteronomic Re-presentation in a Word of Exhortation" An Assessment of the Paraenetic Function of Deuteronomy in the letter to the Hebrews David Mark Allen Doctor of Philosophy University of Edinburgh 2007 i Declaration I declare that this thesis has been composed by me, that it represents my own research and that it has not been submitted for any other degree or professional qualification. _________________________ David Allen ii Thesis Abstract Scholarly study of the Letter to the Hebrews over the last century has devoted a great deal of attention to the use of the Old Testament within the Christian text. Such attention has focused upon diverse issues such as the source Vorlage available to the author, his exegetical and hermeneutical methodologies, and his treatment of themes such as priesthood, covenant, cult, rest or eschatology. Occasionally, scholars have produced substantive analysis of the use of particular texts, such as Ps 110, or Jer 31, but comparatively little attempt has yet been made to assess how an entire narrative or book functions within the letter. Bearing this in mind, this thesis examines the way in which the book of Deuteronomy operates within the paraenetic sections of Hebrews, both at a micro- level (in terms of citation or allusion to the prior text) and at a macro-level (how broad Deuteronomic themes are treated within the discourse). There is extensive treatment of Deuteronomic quotations and echoes, as well as analysis of Hebrews’ borrowing of Deuteronomy’s covenantal blessing/cursing imagery. The thesis also focuses on the way in which Hebrews shares Deuteronomy’s sermonic tone and paraenetic urgency, and how both texts rhetorically position their audience at the threshold of entry into their salvation goal, typified by the promised land. It discusses how Hebrews replays Deuteronomy’s use of the wilderness generation as the paradigm of covenantal disobedience and how both texts exhibit a complex interweaving of the past, present and future moments. Finally, it examines the extent to which Hebrews stands in the tradition of ‘re-presentations’ of Deuteronomy, echoing the way in which other 2nd Temple Jewish texts alluded to it for the purposes of their respective communities. iii Table of Contents Title page i Declaration ii Thesis Abstract iii Table of Contents iv Abbreviations vii Chapter 1: The Relationship between Hebrews & Deuteronomy 1 1.1 Introduction & History 1 1.2 Deuteronomy as text 7 1.3 Methodology/Intertextuality 12 1.4 Thesis Outline 16 Chapter 2: The Text and Function of the Song of Moses 20 2.1 Deuteronomy in Second Temple Judaism 20 2.2 The Form and Use of the Song of Moses 21 2.2.1 The Song of Moses in Deuteronomy 21 2.2.2 Background of Research and Issues 29 2.2.3 Exegesis of the Song 33 2.2.4 Summary 40 2.3 The Use of the Greater Song outside Deuteronomy 41 2.4 Conclusion 46 Chapter 3: Deuteronomic Citation in the text of Hebrews 47 3.1 The Deuteronomic Quotations in Hebrews 47 3.1.1 Heb 1:6 (Deut 32:43 LXX) 47 Heb 1:6 & Ps 96:7 LXX 47 Heb 1:6 & Deut 32:43 LXX 49 Heb 1:6 & Odes 2:43 LXX 55 The Function of Deut 32:43 in Heb 1:6 56 3.1.2 Heb. 10:30a (Deut 32:35) 62 3.1.3 Heb. 10:30b (Deut 32:36) 65 3.1.4 Heb. 12:21 (Deut 9:19) 67 Heb 12:21 & Exod 3:1-6/Acts 7:32 68 Heb 12:21 as Christian exegesis 69 Heb 12:21 & Deut 9:19 70 3.1.5 Heb 12:29 (Deut 4:24/9:3) 72 3.1.6 Heb 13:5 (Deut 31:6) 74 3.2 Deuteronomic Strong Allusions in Hebrews 77 3.2.1 Deut 32:15/Heb 3:12 78 iv 3.2.2 Deut 17:6/Heb 10:28 82 3.2.3 Deut 1:10, 10:22, 28:62/Heb 11:12 83 3.2.4 Deut 8:5/Heb 12:2 86 3.2.5 Deut 29:18b/Heb 12:15b 90 3.2.6 Deut 4:11-12, 5:22-27/Heb 12:18-21 96 3.3 Deuteronomic Echoes in Hebrews 101 3.3.1 Deut 32:46/Heb 2:1 101 3.3.2 Deut 32:47/Heb 4:12 104 3.3.3 Deut 32:4/Heb 10:23 107 3.3.4 Deut 32:35b/Heb 10:25 109 3.3.5 Deut 20:3/Heb 12:3 111 3.3.6 Deut 29:18a/Heb 12:15a 113 3.4 Deuteronomic Narrative Allusions in Hebrews 115 3.4.1 Deut 33:2/Heb 2:2 115 3.4.2 Deut 32:8/Heb 2:5 117 3.4.3 Deut 1:38, 3:28, 31:7, 31:23/Heb 4:8 119 3.5 Conclusion 119 Chapter 4: Thematic parallels between Hebrews and Deuteronomy 121 4.1 Introduction – covenant/tyrb 121 4.1.1 Deuteronomy/Hebrews and Covenant Obligation 124 4.1.2 Deuteronomy/Hebrews and the Centrality of Covenant 131 4.1.3 Deuteronomy/Hebrews and the Notion of 'New Covenant' 134 4.1.4 Conclusion 138 4.2 Blessing/Cursing Imagery in Hebrews 139 4.2.1 Heb 6:4-8 139 4.2.2 Heb 12:16-17 148 4.2.3 Heb 10:26-31 154 4.2.4 Heb 2:1-4 155 4.2.5 Heb 3:7-4:11 156 4.2.6 Blessing & Cursing: Summary 157 4.3 Deuteronomy/Hebrews & the Land 157 4.3.1 Introduction: Deuteronomy and the Land 157 4.3.2 Heb 3:7-4:11 160 4.3.3 Other appeals to land imagery 164 4.3.4 Heb 11 166 Chapter 5: Homiletical Affinities between Hebrews and Deuteronomy 171 5.1 Introduction 171 5.2 The Rhetoric of Hebrews and Deuteronomy 174 5.2.1 Hebrews as Valedictory Address 176 5.2.2 Hebrews as Deuteronomic Valediction 185 v 5.2.3 Case Study – Heb 9:15-18 190 5.2.4 Summary 199 5.3 Then/Now Rhetoric 199 5.3.1 Then/Now Rhetoric in Deuteronomy 199 5.3.2 Then/Now Rhetoric in Deuteronomy in Hebrews 206 5.4 The Journey towards a Threshold 213 5.5 Conclusion 217 Chapter 6: Hebrews and Deuteronomic Re-presentation 218 6.1 Introduction 218 6.2 Deut 28-34 and Israel's history 218 6.3 Hebrews and Deuteronomic Re-presentation 223 6.3.1 Expansion or Rewriting of the Tradition 227 6.3.2 Torah Status 230 6.3.3 Re-presentation of Sinai 234 6.3.4 Mosaic Provenance or Association 238 Chapter 7: Conclusion 245 Bibliography 247 vi Abbreviations Abbreviated forms represent those listed in Patrick H. Alexander et al. (eds.) The SBL Handbook of Style: For Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early Christian Studies (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1999). AB Anchor Bible ABD Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by David Noel Freedman. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992 AJT Asia Journal of Theology AnBib Analecta Biblica ATANT Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments BA Biblical Archaeologist BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research BBR Bulletin for Biblical Research BDAG Danker, F.W., W. Bauer, W.F. Arndt, and F.W. Gingrich, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 3rd ed. Chicago, 1999 BDB Brown, F., S.R. Driver, and C.A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford, 1907 BDF Blass, F., A. Debrunner, and R. W. Funk. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Chicago, 1961. BETL Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium Bib Biblica BJS Brown Judaic Studies BN Biblische Notizen BNTC Black's New Testament Commentaries BSac Bibliotheca sacra BT The Bible Translator BTB Biblical Theology Bulletin BVSAWL Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig BWANT Beiträge zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und Neuen Testament BZ Biblische Zeitschrift BZNW Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft CBQ Catholic Biblical Quarterly CBC Cambridge Bible Commentary CBQMS Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series CJT Canadian Journal of Theology Chm Churchman CNT Commentaire du Nouveau Testament ConBNT Coniectanea biblica: New Testament Series CTJ Calvin Theological Journal CurBS Currents in Research: Biblical Studies DJD Discoveries in the Judean Desert vii DLNT Dictionary of the Later New Testament and its Developments. Edited by Ralph P. Martin, Peter H. Davids. InterVarsity: Leicester, 1997 DNTB Dictionary of New Testament Background. Edited by Craig A. Evans, Stanley E. Porter. InterVarsity: Leicester, 2000. DSD Dead Sea Discoveries EdF Erträge der Forschung EDNT Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament. Edited by H. Balz, G. Schneider. Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, 1990-1993. ETL Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses EvQ Evangelical Quarterly ExpTim Expository Times FAT Forschungen zum Alten Testament GKC Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Edited by E. Kautzsch. Translated by A.E. Cowley. 2nd ed. Oxford, 1910 HAT Handbuch zum Alten Testament HNT Handbuch zum Neuen Testament Int Interpretation ITC International theological commentary FRLANT Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments HNT Handbuch zum Neuen Testament HTR Harvard Theological Review HTS Harvard Theological Studies JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society JBL Journal of Biblical Literature JSS Journal of Semitic Studies JETS Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society JSNTSup Journal for the Study of the New Testament: Supplement Series JSOTSup Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series JSS Journal of Semitic Studies JTS Journal of Theological Studies KHC Kurzer Hand-Commentar zum Alten Testament KEK Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament LEC Library of Early Christianity LNTS Library of New Testament studies MHT Moulton, J. H., W. F. Howard, N. Turner. A Grammar of New Testament Greek. Edinburgh, 1908-76. Neot Neotestamentica NIBCNT New International Biblical Commentary on the New Testament NIBCOT New International Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament NICNT New International Commentary on the New Testament NICOT New International Commentary on the Old Testament NIDOTTE New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. Edited by W.A. VanGemeren 3 vols. Carlisle: Paternoster, 1997. viii NIGTC New International Greek Testament Commentary NovT Novum Testamentum NovTSup Supplements to Novum Testamentum NTS New Testament Studies NTL New Testament Library OBO Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis OBT Overtures to Biblical Theology OtSt Oudtestamentische Studiën RevExp Review & Expositor RevQ Revue de Qumran RTR Reformed Theological Review SBT Studies in Biblical Theology SBLABib Society of Biblical Literature Academia Biblica SBLDS Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series SBLMS Society of Biblical Literature Monograph Series SBLSBS Society of Biblical Literature Sources for Biblical Study SBLSCS Society of Biblical Literature Septuagint and Cognate Studies SJSJ Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism SNTSMS Society for New Testament Monograph Series SR Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses STDJ Studies on the Texts of the Desert of Judah StPB Studia post-Biblica SVTP Studies in Veteris Testamenti pseudepigraphica TDNT Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Edited by G. Kittel and G. Friedrich. Translated by G. W. Bromiley. 10 vols. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964-76. TJ Trinity Journal TLOT Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. Edited by E. Jenni and C. Westermann. Translated by Mark E. Biddle. 3 vols. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1997 TNTC Tyndale New Testament Commentaries TUGAL Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Altchristlichen Literatur TynBul Tyndale Bulletin VT Vetus Testamentum VTSup Supplements to Vetus Testamentum WBC Word Biblical Commentary WMANT Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament WTJ Westminster Theological Journal WUNT Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament ZAW Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft ZNW Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche ix Ch.1: The Relationship between Hebrews & Deuteronomy 1.1 Introduction & History The letter to the Hebrews1 has been described as "one of the earliest and most successful attempts to define the relation between the Old and New Testaments"2 and its author similarly portrayed as "more than anyone else, the Old Testament theologian of the New."3 Any serious analysis of the letter must take account of its exposition and application of the Greek Jewish Scriptures. Whilst its a)pa&twr a)mh&twr a)genealo&ghtoj production has generated widespread debate as to its milieu and conceptual background,4 such speculation has always had to engage with the letter's core Old Testament (OT) material5 to justify any position adopted. Hebrews' use of the OT is intrinsic to the prevailing worldview in which its readers are invited to participate: Through its multiple citations from the Greek text of Scripture, its mode of introducing those citations that treat Scripture as a living and spoken word, and its intricate interpretations of Scripture in light of a contemporary experience, 1 Hebrews' genre has engaged scholars for many years. Whilst we will make much of its oral and sermonic character, we receive it in epistolary form, with customary personalised valedictions (13:22- 25). Hence we will refer to it primarily as a letter or epistle, not judging Deissman's distinction between the two expressions (cf. Gustav Adolf Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East: The New Testament Illustrated by Recently Discovered Texts of the Graeco-Roman World (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1910), 227-30), but recognising, in modern parlance at least, the terms' synonymy. Using both labels avoids unnecessary and stylistically awkward repetition. 2 George B. Caird, "The Exegetical Method of the Epistle to the Hebrews," CJT 5 (1959): 45. 3 D. Moody Smith, "The Use of the Old Testament in the New," in The Use of the Old Testament in the New and Other Essays; Studies in Honor of William Franklin Stinespring (ed. James M. Efird; Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1972), 61. 4 The best recent assessment of such issues remains L. D. Hurst, The Epistle to the Hebrews: Its Background of Thought (SNTSMS 65; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). 5 Scholarly opinion varies as to the appropriate terminology for identifying the Scriptural imagery – 'Hebrew Bible', 'Old Testament', 'Israel's Scriptures' etc. In the interests of consistency, and because Hebrews' itself describes a prw&th diaqh&kh as palaiou&menon kai\ ghra&skon (8:13), we will henceforth use 'Old Testament' terminology. A further terminological clarification is also requisite. Whilst the use of gender-specific language will generally be avoided, the textual witness of 11:32 (the masculine participle dihgou&menon) makes the case for male authorship strong. We will therefore use masculine terminology for the author when absolutely necessary. 1

"Deuteronomic Re-presentation in a Word of Exhortation". An Assessment of the Paraenetic Function of Deuteronomy in the letter to the Hebrews.
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