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COCCIDIOSIS IN TURKEYS By Philip Alba Hawkins A THESIS Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Science in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OP PHILOSOPHY Department of Animal Pathology 1950 ProQuest Number: 10008327 All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. uest ProQuest 10008327 Published by ProQuest LLC (2016). Copyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Mi 48106- 1346 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgments 1 I Introduction 3 II Historical 5 III Materials and Methods 12 Source and handling of material 12 Rearing birds and infection ex­ periments 14 Technical procedures 16 IV Eimeria disper sa Tyzzer, 1929 18 Source 18 Hosts 18 Oocyst 19 Tissue stages 26 Gross pathology 29 Histopathology 45 Symptoms 47 Immuni ty 47 V Eimeria meleagrimitis Tyzzer, 1929 57 Source 57 Host 57 Oocyst 57 Tissue stages 58 Gross pathology 64 Histopathology 73 Symptoms 75 Immunity 85 VI Eimeria meleagridis Tyzzer, 1927 92 Source 92 Host 92 Oocyst 92 Tissue stages 93 Gross pathology 97 Histopathology 98 Symptoms 103 Immunity 103 VII Eimeria gallopavonis new species 117 Source 117 Hosts 117 Oocyst 119 Tissue stages 122 Pathology and symptoms 125 Immuni ty 125 VIII Discussion 134 IX Conclusions 153 X Bibliography 154 AC KN0WLEDGEMENT S This project would not have been possible without the assistance of a number of individuals, to all of whom the writer is greatly Indebted. To Dr* Prank Thorp Jr. I wish to express my appreciation for his suggestions and encour­ agement during the entire course of this work. I also wish to acknowledge the aid of Dr* H. J. Stafseth in making a- vailable certain facilities and materials for the prosec­ ution of this project, and for his constant interest dur­ ing its course. This work would have been Impossible with­ out a generous grant from Swift and Company, Chicago, Illinoi s. The success of this work is primarily due to the co­ operation of investigators throughout the United States, who kindly sent me materials for study. To the following I wish to express my thanks: Dr. I. M. Moulthrop, Mary­ land State Board of Agriculture; Dr. E. H. Peterson, State College of Washington; Dr. J. P. Delaplane, Rhode Island State College; Dr. Paul C. Bennett, Iowa State College; Dr. M. L. Miner, Utah State Agricultural College; Dr. H. Van Roekel, University of Massachusetts; Dr. F. R. Beau- dette, Rutgers University; Dr. D. P. Eveleth, North Dakota Agricultural College; Dr. E. R. Doll, University of Ken­ tucky; Dr. B. S. Pomeroy, University of Minnesota; Dr. P. R. Woodring, University of Nebraska; Dr. H. C. McDougle, University of Missouri; Dr. E. M. Dickinson, Oregon State College; Dr. W. A. Boney, Agricultural and Mechanical Col­ lege of Texas; Dr. N. P. Morehouse, Dr. Salsburys Laborat­ ories; Dr. K. L. Bullis, University of Massachusetts and Dr. Saul Narotsky, Michigan State College. Most of the sectioning of tissues was capably done by Mrs. Esther Grill and Mrs. Loretta Van Camp. Mr. Jack S. Dunlap helped greatly in his care of the uninfected turkeys and by taking certain of the photomicrographs. Mr. Billy Williams did all of the art work. Finally, I am greatly indebted to my wife for her help in the preparation and completion of the manuscript* INTRODUCTION Coccidiosis of the domesticated animals is the cause of great loss, and much time and effort has been spent in its study* In poultry this disease has received the great­ est attention, primarily because of the ease of handling the smaller animals* However, coccidiosis in turkeys is as little known today as in 1929 when Tyzzer suggested that further researches were necessary for its elucidation. In recent years it would seem that there was only one method available by which the coccidia could be studied. In this period most investigations have been directed toward finding suitable therapeutic agents for the control of the disease. There have been relatively few attempts made to­ ward a better understanding of the disease. In fact, the emphasis of many has been on the therapeutic agent, often without an understanding of the disease. In the study of the parasitic diseases two groups of investigators are found, the parasitologist and the clin­ ician* The former is primarily interested in the parasite reaction, the latter in the host reaction, but neither is too interested in the host-parasite reaction relationship. A knowledge of this host-parasite relationship is neces­ sary for the comprehension of parasitic diseases, in fact all infectious diseases. A complete understanding of a single disease entity in all its complexity is more than a single individual can hope to achieve. However, we will come closer to reaching this goal if the disease Is not submerged in man-made, departmentalized fields of study. In this study of coc­ cidiosis in turkeys, an attempt has been made to study it as a disease* Therefore, in the following pages will be found the subject matter of the parasitologist, path­ ologist, immunologist and clinician; and because these groups would be directing their interests toward a com­ mon end, this is ultimately subject matter for the poultry producer. HISTORICAL Coccidiosis in poultry was considered to be caused by a single species of coccidium, Eimeria avium, until Tyzzer (1929) first demonstrated conclusively the multiplicity of species involved in this disease* This Investigator was largely concerned with the coccidia of the chicken, and only Incidently with those of the turkey* He showed that not only is there marked host-specificity of this parasite, but that there is also an organ specificity* The species occur­ ring in the chicken are specific for the chicken, being in­ capable of infecting any other host, and are also found in a rather circumscribed area of the intestinal tract of the infected host. Even those forms which may be found in the same location in the intestinal tract evoke, in many in­ stances, a response which is specific for that species. Thus the great contribution of Tyzzer was not only the demon­ stration of the multiplicity of species which are involved in this disease, but also the marked host and organ specificity of each species. Of the coccidia which are found in the turkey Tyzzer (1927, 1929) described two species, Eimeria meleagridis and Eimeria meleagrimitis, which were found in the cecum and small Intestine respectively. However, two statements made by him at that time indicate that little was known concern­ ing these organisms. These were as follows: "No exact in­ formation is available concerning the pathogenicity of these two species of Eimeria, which occur in the turkey”, and "Coccidiosis in the turkey requires further investigation, for not only are we poorly informed as to the tissue re­ actions concerned, but a great variation in the size of the oocysts in recently obtained material suggests the occur­ rence in the turkey of forms of Eimeria other than those here described". The status of coccidiosis in the turkey at the time these investigations began was the same as that noted by Tyzzer (1929). Cole and Hadley (1908) and Cole and Hadley (1910) con­ sidered blackhead in turkeys to be caused by a coccidium, Eimeria avium. It was unfortunate that they confused the etiological agents of these two diseases. However, from their descriptions It may be seen that they were dealing with at least three species of coccidia, namely E. melea- gridis, E. meleagrimitis and probably E. dispersa as well as Histomonas meleagridi s, the latter being considered to be a stage in the life history of the coccidium. A further review of the early work on coccidiosis, before that of Tyzzer (1929) would seem to be out of place here. Previous to 1929 all the numerous species of coccidia now known to occur in birds were assumed to be one, E. avium, with ref­ erences being made interchangeably to different species of avian hosts, making interpretation difficult as well as doubtful. Tyzzer*s (1929) description of the species of coccidia occuring in the turkey are very meager. E. meleagridis Tyzzer, 1927 occurring in the cecum was first observed by Johnson (1923), but was not at that time regarded as a dis­

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