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Biology - National Curriculum Development Centre PDF

304 Pages·2013·3.91 MB·English
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O’ Level Biology Integrated With Technology LEARNER’S BOOK Ministry of Education and Sports A O’ Level Biology Integrated With Technology LEARNER’S BOOK Ministry of Education and Sports Copyright © National Curriculum Development Centre, Uganda, 2012 Published by National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC), P.O. Box 7002, Kyambogo, KAMPALA. ALL rights reserved. No part of this publication should be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the permission of the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. ISBN: 978-9970-00-091-3 Website: www.ncdc.go.ug Contents Background i Foreword ii Preface iii Acknowledgement iv Introduction v Chapter 1: DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS 1 Chapter 2: SOIL 67 Chapter 3: NUTRITION IN ORGANISMS 85 Chapter 4: TRANSPORT IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS 131 Chapter 5: GASEOUS EXCHANGE AND RESPIRATION 151 Chapter 6: HOMEOSTASIS AND EXCRETION 181 Chapter 7: COORDINATION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS 199 Chapter 8: LOCOMOTION 213 Chapter 9: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 219 Chapter 10: REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS 229 Chapter 11: GENETICS AND ENVOLUTION 257 Chapter 12: INTERRELATIONSHIPS 269 Background This Learners’ Handbook contains information on Biology Integrated with Technology activities related to topics in the UCE Biology Curricu- lum. The practical activities in this Handbook provide an economical product or provide a service. Comparing it to a number of Biology text- books, that have the conventional practical activities, most of which are done in school laboratories, do not directly relate to everyday life experi- ences. Foreword It should be appreciated that Science and Mathematics are key learn- ing aspects that play a vital part in our lifestyle. At home, within a community, national and internationally learners meet with Sci- ence and Mathematics functional knowledge. Therefore, the need to broaden an understanding and skill development is of paramount importance for sustainable development. We find it easier to carry out scientific and Mathematics activities outside the classroom for example making garments, bread, alcohol, ice cream and furniture. All these activities are directly related to what is learnt in Sciences and Mathematics at school but no refer- ence to them is done thus making these subjects abstract and less interesting. This is to appeal to the users of this book to avoid ne- glecting innovations that guide learning but embrace all the Science/ Mathematics concepts in the curriculum. i Preface The major reason for undertaking this new approach to teaching- learning Sciences and Mathematics at O level is to improve the academic achievements and interest of learners. The idea of integrating Technology into Sciences and Mathematics at lower secondary education was conceived after realizing that Science and Mathematics teaching at this level hardly generated interest in the learners. In addition, these learners were lacking in practical skills and rarely applied Science and Mathematics to everyday life situations. The National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC) has developed this new approach of teaching Science and Mathematics by including practical activities that enable learners to come up with products or be able to offer services to the community leading to national sustainable development by generating their own income. ii Acknowledgement This book was developed and prepared in a series of writing and discussion workshops organised by the National Curriculum Development (NCDC) between 2007 and 2011. I wish to acknowledge the contribution of the subject panel members, teachers and learners from various schools who participated at trial activity phase and other education stakeholders that provided input and direction of this material. I am grateful to all those who worked behind the scenes for the commitment in ensuring the work is done and feedback from the field is incorporated. I also thank the African Development Bank (ADB) Project Phase-III for the financial support. Last but not least, I wish to recognise agencies, companies and websites for the reference materials and pictures used in this book. Connie Kateeba Director NCDC iii iv

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