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Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes PDF

537 Pages·2010·5.95 MB·English
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About Island Press Island Press is the only nonprofit organization in the United States whose principal purpose is the publication of books on environmental issues and natural resource man- agement. We provide solutions-oriented information to professionals, public officials, business and community leaders, and concerned citizens who are shaping responses to environmental problems. In 2004, Island Press celebrates its twentieth anniversary as the leading provider of timely and practical books that take a multidisciplinary approach to critical environ- mental concerns. Our growing list of titles reflects our commitment to bringing the best of an expanding body of literature to the environmental community throughout North America and the world. Support for Island Press is provided by the Agua Fund, Brainerd Foundation, Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, Educational Foundation of America, The Ford Foundation, The George Gund Foundation, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The Cur- tis and Edith Munson Foundation, National Environmental Trust, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, The New-Land Foundation, Oak Foundation, The Overbrook Foundation, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts, The Rockefeller Foundation, The Winslow Foundation, and other generous donors. The opinions expressed in this book are those of the author(s) and do not neces- sarily reflect the views of these foundations. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes EDITED BY Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Celia A. Harvey, Claude Gascon, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, and Anne-Marie N. Izac Washington • Covelo • London Copyright © 2004 Island Press All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher: Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009. ISLAND PRESS is a trademark of The Center for Resource Economics. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data (CIP Data to come) British Cataloguing-in-Publication Data available. Book design by Brighid Willson Printed on recycled, acid-free paper Manufactured in the United States of America 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents Preface xi Introduction: The Role of Agroforestry in Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes 1 Götz Schroth, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Celia A. Harvey, Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, Claude Gascon, and Anne-Marie N. Izac Part I: Conservation Biology and Landscape Ecology in the Tropics: A Framework for Agroforestry Applications 13 Chapter 1: Biodiversity Conservation in Deforested and Fragmented Tropical Landscapes: An Overview 15 Claude Gascon, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca, Wes Sechrest, Kaycie A. Billmark, and James Sanderson Chapter 2: Ecological Effects of Habitat Fragmentation in the Tropics 33 William F. Laurance and Heraldo L. Vasconcelos Chapter 3: Landscape Connectivity and Biological Corridors 50 Susan G. W. Laurance Part II: The Ecological Economics of Agroforestry: Environmental Benefits and Effects on Deforestation 65 Chapter 4: The Economic Valuation of Agroforestry’s Environmental Services 67 David Pearce and Susana Mourato vii viii Contents Chapter 5: Is Agroforestry Likely to Reduce Deforestation? 87 Arild Angelsen and David Kaimowitz Chapter 6: Chocolate Forests and Monocultures: A Historical Review of Cocoa Growing and Its Conflicting Role in Tropical Deforestation and Forest Conservation 107 François Ruf and Götz Schroth Chapter 7: Achieving Biodiversity Conservation Using Conservation Concessions to Complement Agroforestry 135 Eduard Niesten, Shelley Ratay, and Richard Rice Part III: The Biodiversity of Agroforestry Systems: Habitat, Biological Corridor, and Buffer for Protected Areas 151 Chapter 8: The Biodiversity and Conservation Potential of Shifting Cultivation Landscapes 153 Bryan Finegan and Robert Nasi Chapter 9: Biodiversity Conservation in Neotropical Coffee (Coffea arabica) Plantations 198 Eduardo Somarriba, Celia A. Harvey, Mario Samper, François Anthony, Jorge González, Charles Staver, and Robert A. Rice Chapter 10: Complex Agroforests: Their Structure, Diversity, and Potential Role in Landscape Conservation 227 Götz Schroth, Celia A. Harvey, and Grégoire Vincent Chapter 11: Live Fences, Isolated Trees, and Windbreaks: Tools for Conserving Biodiversity in Fragmented Tropical Landscapes 261 Celia A. Harvey, Nigel I. J. Tucker, and Alejandro Estrada Chapter 12: Agroforestry Systems: Important Components in Conserving the Genetic Viability of Native Tropical Tree Species? 290 David H. Boshier Contents ix Part IV: Biodiversity as Burden and Natural Capital: Interactions between Agroforestry Areas, Natural Ecosystems, and Rural Communities in Tropical Land Use Mosaics 315 Chapter 13: Wildlife Conservation in Agroforestry Buffer Zones: Opportunities and Conflict 319 Lisa Naughton-Treves and Nick Salafsky Chapter 14: Hunting in Agroforestry Systems and Landscapes: Conservation Implications in West-Central Africa and Southeast Asia 346 David S. Wilkie and Robert J. Lee Chapter 15: Invasive Agroforestry Trees: Problems and Solutions 371 David M. Richardson, Pierre Binggeli, and Götz Schroth Chapter 16: Diseases in Tropical Agroforestry Landscapes: The Role of Biodiversity 397 Ulrike Krauss Part V: Matrix Management in Practice: Agroforestry Tools in Landscape Conservation 413 Chapter 17: Agroforestry Buffer Zones and Stepping Stones: Tools for the Conservation of Fragmented Landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest 415 Laury Cullen Jr., Jefferson Ferreira Lima, and Tiago Pavan Beltrame Chapter 18: Agroforestry and Biodiversity: Improving Conservation Outcomes in Tropical Northeastern Australia 431 Nigel I. J. Tucker, Grant Wardell-Johnson, Carla P. Catterall, and John Kanowski Chapter 19: Silvopastoral Systems: Ecological and Socioeconomic Benefits and Migratory Bird Conservation 453 Robert A. Rice and Russell Greenberg Chapter 20: Agroforestry and Climate Change–Integrated Conservation Strategies 473 Lee Hannah

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