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A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Europe: 1789-1914 PDF

556 Pages·2006·4.92 MB·english
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A COMPANION TO NINETEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE 1789–1914 Edited by Stefan Berger A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Europe BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO EUROPEAN HISTORY This series provides sophisticated and authoritative overviews of the scholarship that has shaped our current understanding of Europe’s past. Each volume comprises between twenty-five and forty concise essays written by individual scholars within their area of specialization. The aim of each contribution is to synthe- size the current state of scholarship from a variety of historical perspectives and to provide a statement on where the field is heading. The essays are written in a clear, provocative, and lively manner, designed for an international audience of scholars, students, and general readers. The Blackwell Companions to European Historyis a cornerstone of Blackwell’s overarching Companions to History series, covering European, American, and World History. Published A Companion to Europe 1900–1945 A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance Edited by Gordon Martel Edited by Guido Ruggiero A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Europe A Companion to the Reformation World Edited by Stefan Berger Edited by R. Po-chia Hsia BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO HISTORY Published A Companion to Western Historical Thought A Companion to Gender History Edited by Lloyd Kramer and Sarah Maza Edited by Teresa A. Meade and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO BRITISH HISTORY Published A Companion to Contemporary Britain A Companion to Stuart Britain Edited by Paul Addison and Harriet Jones Edited by Barry Coward A Companion to Early Twentieth-Century Britain A Companion to Tudor Britain Edited by Chris Wrigley Edited by Robert Tittler and Norman Jones A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Britain A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages Edited by Chris Williams Edited by S. H. Rigby A Companion to Eighteenth-Century Britain A Companion to Roman Britain Edited by H. T. Dickinson Edited by Malcolm Todd BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO AMERICAN HISTORY Published A Companion to the American Revolution A Companion to Twentieth-Century America Edited by Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole Edited by Stephen J. Whitfield A Companion to Nineteenth-Century America A Companion to the American West Edited by William L. Barney Edited by William Deverell A Companion to the American South A Companion to American Foreign Relations Edited by John B. Boles Edited by Robert D. Schulzinger A Companion to American Indian History A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction Edited by Philip J. Deloria and Neal Salisbury Edited by Lacy K. Ford A Companion to American Women’s History A Companion to American Technology Edited by Nancy A. Hewitt Edited by Carroll Pursell A Companion to Post-1945 America A Companion to African-American History Edited by Jean-Christophe Agnew and Roy Rosenzweig Edited by Alton Hornsby A Companion to the Vietnam War A Companion to American Immigration Edited by Marilyn B. Young and Robert Buzzanco Edited by Reed Ueda A Companion to Colonial America Edited by Daniel Vickers BLACKWELL COMPANIONS TO WORLD HISTORY Published A Companion to the History of the Middle East Edited by Youssef M. Choueiri A COMPANION TO NINETEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE 1789–1914 Edited by Stefan Berger © 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148–5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Stefan Berger to be identified as the Author of the Editorial Material in this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd 1 2006 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A companion to nineteenth-century Europe, 1789–1914 / edited by Stefan Berger. p. cm—(Blackwell companions to European history) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-1320–5 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-1320-0 (alk. paper) 1. Europe—History—1789–1900. 2. Europe—History—20th century. 3. Europe—Social conditions—1789–1900. 4. Europe–Social conditions—20th century. 5. Europe—Civilization—19th century. 6. Europe—Civilization—20th century. I. Berger, Stefan. II. Series. D299.C623 2006 940.2¢8—dc22 2005013073 A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 9 on 11 pt Gallard by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd, Hong Kong Printed and bound in India by Replika Press Ltd The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellpublishing.com Contents List of Figures viii Notes on Contributors x Maps xiv Introduction xvii Stefan Berger Paarrtt I Thhee Iddeeaa ooff “Euurrooppeeaannnneessss” aanndd tthhee Coonnssttrruuccttiioonn ooff Euurrooppeeaann Iddeennttiittyy 1 1 Insiders and Outsiders: Borders in Nineteenth-Century Europe 3 Bo Stråth 2 Visual Representations of Europe in the Nineteenth Century: The Age of Nationalism and Imperialism 11 Michael Wintle Paarrtt II Aggrriiccuullttuurree, Inndduussttrryy, aanndd Soocciiaall Chhaannggee 29 3 Rural Society and Agricultural Revolution 31 Hamish Graham 4 Industrial Revolution, Commerce, and Trade 44 Robert Lee 5 Demography, Urbanization, and Migration 56 Robert Lee 6 Lords and Peasants 70 Carl Levy 7 Bourgeois Society 86 Pamela Pilbeam vi contents 8 The Disappearance of the Traditional Artisan 98 James R. Farr 9 The Social Condition of the Working Class 109 Jutta Schwarzkopf Paarrtt III Poolliittiiccaall Deevveellooppmmeennttss 123 10 Revolutions and Revolutionaries: Histories, Concepts, and Myths 125 Sharif Gemie 11 The Rise of the Modern Leviathan: State Functions and State Features 137 Jörn Leonhard 12 The Democratic Experience 149 John Garrard 13 Labor Movements 164 Stefan Berger 14 National Movements 178 Stefan Berger 15 The “Woman Question” 193 Kathleen Canning Paarrtt IV Inntteelllleeccttuuaall Deevveellooppmmeennttss aanndd Reelliiggiioonn 209 16 Political Ideologies: Liberalism, Conservatism, and Socialism 211 Edmund Neill 17 Social Darwinism and Race 224 Mike Hawkins 18 The Age of Catholic Revival 236 Oded Heilbronner 19 Protestantism 248 Anthony J. Steinhoff 20 Orthodoxy 262 Shane P. O’Rourke 21 The Jews: A European Minority 274 David Rechter Paarrtt V Cuullttuurraall Deevveellooppmmeennttss 289 22 European Culture in the Nineteenth Century 291 James A. Winders 23 Schooling: Culture and the State 304 Sharif Gemie contents vii 24 The Age of Historism 316 Matthew Jefferies 25 The Century of Science 333 Kathryn M. Olesko 26 Police and the Law 345 Chris A. Williams 27 The Cultural History of Crime 355 Daniel M. Vyleta 28 Medical Discourses 369 John C. Waller 29 Sexuality 382 Ivan Crozier Paarrtt VI Thhee Inntteerrnnaattiioonnaall Syysstteemm, Coolloonniiaalliissmm, aanndd Waarr 399 30 Restrained Competition: International Relations 401 William Mulligan 31 War 417 Ute Frevert 32 Colonialism 432 Trutz von Trotha Bibliography 449 Index 499 Figures 2.1 Cesare Ripa, The Four Continents (1644: 601–5) 13 2.2 Screen showing the four continents and two seasons (summer and winter), French, ca. 1810–30, displaying Europe and Africa. Wallpaper printed in distemper colors from woodblocks. Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Paul Rosenberg, 1931.4 14 2.3 Karl Hasenauer, Statue of Europe, outside Natural History Museum, Vienna, 1889. Author’s photograph 15 2.4 Cartoon: “Like a Succubus, Africa weighs on the Repose of Europe,” 1896. Le Rire (April 18, 1896) 17 2.5 Europe and Africa, Centraal Station facade, Amsterdam, 1880s. Author’s photograph 18 2.6 Friedrich August von Kaulbach, “Germania, 1914.” Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin 20 2.7 F. W. Rose, “Novel carte of Europe, designed for 1870.” From Goss (1993: 339) 23 2.8 Honoré Daumier, cartoon, “Nouvelle suspension aérienne.” Charivari (February 7, 1867) 25 2.9 Hermann Knackfuss, “People of Europe – Defend your Holiest Possessions!” 1895. AKG-Images, Berlin 26 2.10 Walter Crane, Map of the World showing the extent of the British Empire, The Graphic (July 24, 1886), supplement 26 24.1 Monument to the legendary Germanic tribal leader Arminius (Hermann), who defeated the Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in ad 9 and later became a hero of the German Romantic movement. Conceived and designed by Ernst von Bandel, it was built near Detmold between 1838 and 1875 and originally funded by public subscription, although only completed with Prussian royal funds 327 24.2 Monument to Kaiser Wilhelm I at Koblenz, designed by Bruno Schmitz and built between 1891 and 1897. It was one of around 400 official state funded monuments erected in the 1890s to the memory of modern Germany’s first emperor 328

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