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An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering PDF

449 Pages·2011·11.98 MB·English
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An Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Third Edition Jonathan Wickert Iowa State University Kemper Lewis University at Buff alo—SUNY Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd ii 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd iivv 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM An Introduction to Mechanical © 2013, 2006 Cengage Learning Engineering, Third Edition ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright Jonathan Wickert and Kemper E. Lewis herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited Publisher, Global Engineering: Christopher to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, web distribution, M. Shortt information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except Senior Acquisitions Editor: Randall Adams as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Senior Developmental Editor: Hilda Gowans Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Editorial Assistant: Tanya Altieri For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Team Assistant: Carly Rizzo Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. Marketing Manager: Lauren Betsos For permission to use material from this text or product, Media Editor: Chris Valentine submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions. Further permissions questions can be emailed to Director, Content and Media Production: [email protected]. Patricia M. Boies Content Project Manager: Kim Kusnerak Library of Congress Control Number: 2011934125 Production Service: RPK Editorial Services, Inc. Copyeditor: Shelly Gerger-Knechtl ISBN-13: 978-1-111-57680-6 Proofreader: Erin Wagner ISBN-10: 1-111-57680-7 Indexer: Shelly Gerger-Knechtl Compositor: MPS Limited, a Macmillan Cengage Learning Company 200 First Stamford Place, Suite 400 Senior Art Director: Michelle Kunkler Stamford, CT 06902 USA Internal Designer: Juli Cook/Plan-It-Publishing Cover Designer: Andrew Adams/4065042 Canada Inc. Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with offi ce locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Cover Images: © Tzooka/Dreamstime; Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local offi ce at: R-studio/Shutterstock; Scott Hales/ International.cengage.com/region. Shutterstock; Laurence Gough/Shutterstock; Andriy Solovyov/Shutterstock; Losevsky Pavel/Shutterstock; Dumitrescu Ciprian- Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Florin/Shutterstock; irin-k/Shutterstock; Nelson Education Ltd. marema/Shutterstock; Brian A Jackson/ Shutterstock; 3DDock/Shutterstock; Patrick Breig/Shutterstock; Andrey Kekyalyaynen/ For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com/ Shutterstock; Vladitto/Shutterstock; Zbynek engineering. Jirousek/Shutterstock; Poznukhov Yuriy/ Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our Shutterstock; Dimon/Shutterstock; Darren preferred online store www.cengagebrain.com. Baker/Shutterstock; Tom Grill/Shutterstock; Nomad_Soul/Shutterstock; Sergii Korolko/ Shutterstock; minik/Shutterstock Rights Acquisitions Specialist: Deanna Ettinger Text and Image Permissions Researcher: Kristiina Paul Senior First Print Buyer: Doug Wilke Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd iiii 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM D EDICATION To Karen and Rebecca for their patience and encouragement throughout this project. Jonathan Wickert To the Lord for grace and to Laura, Kamryn, and Kaden for their overwhelming patience, support, and love. Kemper Lewis 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd iiiiii 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM This page intentionally left blank Contents Student’s Preface xi Instructor’s Preface xiii About the Authors xxi CHAPTER 1 THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROFESSION 1 1.1 Overview 1 The Elements of Mechanical Engineering 1 1.2 What Is Engineering? 4 1.3 Who Are Mechanical Engineers? 10 Mechanical Engineering’s Top Ten Achievements 12 1.4 Career Paths 22 1.5 Typical Program of Study 24 Summary 28 Self-Study and Review 28 Problems 29 References 31 CHAPTER 2 MECHANICAL DESIGN 33 2.1 Overview 33 2.2 The Design Process 37 Requirements Development 41 Conceptual Design 42 Detailed Design 43 Production 47 2.3 Manufacturing Processes 50 2.4 Case Study in Conceptual Design: Mousetrap-Powered Vehicles 57 First Concept: String and Lever Arm 58 Second Concept: Compound Geartrain 59 Third Concept: Sector-Shaped Gear 61 2.5 Case Study in Urban Power Infrastructures 62 Requirements Development 62 Conceptual Design 63 Detailed Design 65 v 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd vv 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM vi Contents 2.6 Case Study: Computer-Aided Design: Noninvasive Medical Imaging 66 Summary 70 Self-Study and Review 71 Problems 72 References 76 CHAPTER 3 TECHNICAL PROBLEM-SOLVING AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS 77 3.1 Overview 77 3.2 General Technical Problem-Solving Approach 82 3.3 Unit Systems and Conversions 84 Base and Derived Units 84 International System of Units 84 United States Customary System of Units 88 Converting Between the SI and USCS 91 3.4 Signifi cant Digits 96 3.5 Dimensional Consistency 98 3.6 Estimation in Engineering 107 3.7 Communication Skills in Engineering 112 Written Communication 113 Graphical Communication 115 Technical Presentations 116 Summary 120 Self-Study and Review 120 Problems 121 References 128 CHAPTER 4 FORCES IN STRUCTURES AND MACHINES 129 4.1 Overview 129 4.2 Forces in Rectangular and Polar Forms 131 Rectangular Components 132 Polar Components 133 4.3 Resultant of Several Forces 134 Vector Algebra Method 135 Vector Polygon Method 136 4.4 Moment of a Force 140 Perpendicular Lever Arm Method 140 Moment Components Method 142 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd vvii 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM Contents vii 4.5 Equilibrium of Forces and Moments 148 Particles and Rigid Bodies 148 Free Body Diagrams 150 4.6 Design Application: Rolling-Element Bearings 158 Summary 166 Self-Study and Review 167 Problems 168 References 182 CHAPTER 5 MATERIALS AND STRESSES 183 5.1 Overview 183 5.2 Tension and Compression 185 5.3 Material Response 193 5.4 Shear 205 5.5 Engineering Materials 210 Metals and Their Alloys 211 Ceramics 212 Polymers 213 Composite Materials 214 5.6 Factor of Safety 218 Summary 222 Self-Study and Review 224 Problems 225 References 237 CHAPTER 6 FLUIDS ENGINEERING 238 6.1 Overview 238 6.2 Properties of Fluids 240 6.3 Pressure and Buoyancy Force 248 6.4 Laminar and Turbulent Fluid Flows 255 6.5 Fluid Flow in Pipes 259 6.6 Drag Force 266 6.7 Lift Force 275 Summary 281 Self-Study and Review 282 Problems 283 References 290 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd vviiii 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM viii Contents CHAPTER 7 THERMAL AND ENERGY SYSTEMS 291 7.1 Overview 291 7.2 Mechanical Energy, Work, and Power 293 Gravitational Potential Energy 293 Elastic Potential Energy 294 Kinetic Energy 294 Work of a Force 295 Power 295 7.3 Heat as Energy in Transit 300 Heating Value 300 Specifi c Heat 302 Transfer of Heat 304 7.4 Energy Conservation and Conversion 313 7.5 Heat Engines and Effi ciency 318 7.6 Case Study 1: Internal-Combustion Engines 323 Four-Stroke Engine Cycle 325 Two-Stroke Engine Cycle 328 7.7 Case Study 2: Electrical Power Generation 330 7.8 Case Study 3: Jet Engines 339 Summary 342 Self-Study and Review 343 Problems 344 References 350 CHAPTER 8 MOTION AND POWER TRANSMISSION 351 8.1 Overview 351 8.2 Rotational Motion 353 Angular Velocity 353 Rotational Work and Power 355 8.3 Design Application: Gears 359 Spur Gears 360 Rack and Pinion 364 Bevel Gears 364 Helical Gears 364 Worm Gearsets 367 8.4 Speed, Torque, and Power in Gearsets 369 Speed 370 Torque 371 Power 372 7766880066__ffmm__ii--xxxxiiii..iinndddd vviiiiii 99//2222//1111 66::3377 PPMM

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